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scikit-learn: scikit-learn 2023 In-person Developer Sprint in Paris, France

Sat, 2023-09-09 20:00
Author: Reshama Shaikh , François Goupil

During the week of June 19 to 23, 2023, the scikit-learn team held its first developers sprint since 2019! The sprint took place in Paris, France at the Dataiku office. The sprint event was an in-person event and had 32 participants.

The following scikit-learn team members joined the sprint:

  1. Adrin Jalali
  2. Arturo Amor Quiroz
  3. François Goupil (@francoisgoupil)
  4. Frank Charras (@fcharras)
  5. Gael Varoquaux (@GaelVaroquaux)
  6. Guillaume Lemaitre (@glemaitre)
  7. Jérémie du Boisberranger (@jeremiedbb)
  8. Joris Van den Bossche
  9. Julien Jerphanion (@jjerphan)
  10. Loïc Estève
  11. Maren Westermann
  12. Olivier Grisel (@ogrisel)
  13. Roman Yurchak
  14. Thomas Fan
  15. Tim Head (@betatim)

The following community members joined the sprint:

  1. Alexandre Landeau
  2. Alexandre Vigny
  3. Chaine San Buenaventura
  4. Camille Troillard
  5. Denis Engemann
  6. Franck Charras
  7. Harizo Rajaona
  8. Ines (intern at Dataiku)
  9. Jovan Stojanovic
  10. Leo Dreyfus-Schmidt
  11. Léo Grinsztajn
  12. Lilian Boulard
  13. Louis Fouquet
  14. Riccardo Cappuzzo
  15. Samuel Ronsin
  16. Vincent Maladière
  17. Yann Lechelle
scikit-learn Developer Sprint, Paris, June 2023; Photo credit: Copyright: Inria / Photo B. Fourrier, June 2023; (from left to right, back to front): Last Row: Denis Engemann, Riccardo Cappuzzo, François Goupil, Tim Head, Guillaume Lemaitre, Louis Fouquet, Jérémie du Boisberranger, Frank Charras, Léo Grinsztajn, Arturo Amor Quiroz. Middle Row: Thomas Fan, Lilian Boulard, Gaël Varoquaux, Ines, Jovan Stojanovic, Chaine San Buenaventura. First Row: Olivier Grisel, Harizo Rajaona, Vincent Maladière. Sponsors
  • Dataiku provided the space and some of the food, as well as all of the coffee.
  • The scikit-learn consortium organized the sprint, paid for the lunch, the travel and accommodation expenses.
Topics covered at the sprint
  • PR #13649: Monotonic constraints for Tree-based models
  • Discussed the vision/future directions for the project. What is important to keep the project relevant in the future.
  • Should we share some points beyond the vision statement?
  • Thomas F will try and create a vision statement
  • Discussed what people are keeping an eye on with a two year time scale in mind in terms of technology and developments that are relevant.
  • Tim: keep improving our documentation (not just expanding it but also “gardening” to keep it readable)
  • Tim: increase active outreach and communication about new features/improvements and other changes. A lot of cool things in scikit-learn are virtually unknown to the wider public (e.g. Hist grad boosting being on par with lightgbm in terms of performance, …)
What is next?

We are discussing co-locating with OpenML in 2024 in Berlin, Germany to organize another developers’ sprint.

scikit-learn Developer Sprint, Paris, June 2023; Photo credit: Copyright Inria / Photo B. Fourrier, June 2023; (from left to right): Thomas Fan, Olivier Grisel
Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Stack Abuse: The 'u' and 'r' String Prefixes and Raw String Literals in Python

Sat, 2023-09-09 12:05

While learning Python or reading someone else's code, you may have encountered the 'u' and 'r' prefixes and raw string literals. But what do these terms mean? How do they affect our Python code? In this article, we will attemp to demystify these concepts and understand their usage in Python.

String Literals in Python

A string literal in Python is a sequence of characters enclosed in quotes. We can use either single quotes (' ') or double quotes (" ") to define a string.

# Using single quotes my_string = 'Hello, StackAbuse readers!' print(my_string) # Using double quotes my_string = "Hello, StackAbuse readers!" print(my_string)

Running this code will give you the following:

$ python Hello, StackAbuse readers! Hello, StackAbuse readers!

Pretty straightforward, right? In my opinion, the thing that confuses most people is the "literal" part. We're used to calling them just "strings", so when you hear it being called a "string literal", it sounds like something more complicated.

Python also offers other ways to define strings. We can prefix our string literals with certain characters to change their behavior. This is where 'u' and 'r' prefixes come in, which we'll talk about later.

Python also supports triple quotes (''' ''' or """ """) to define strings. These are especially useful when we want to define a string that spans multiple lines.

Here's an example of a multi-line string:

# Using triple quotes my_string = """ Hello, StackAbuse readers! """ print(my_string)

Running this code will output the following:

$ python Hello, StackAbuse readers!

Notice the newlines in the output? That's thanks to triple quotes!

What are 'u' and 'r' String Prefixes?

In Python, string literals can have optional prefixes that provide additional information about the string. These prefixes are 'u' and 'r', and they're used before the string literal to specify its type. The 'u' prefix stands for Unicode, and the 'r' prefix stands for raw.

Now, you may be wondering what Unicode and raw strings are. Well, let's break them down one by one, starting with the 'u' prefix.

The 'u' String Prefix

The 'u' prefix in Python stands for Unicode. It's used to define a Unicode string. But what is a Unicode string?

Unicode is an international encoding standard that provides a unique number for every character, irrespective of the platform, program, or language. This makes it possible to use and display text from multiple languages and symbol sets in your Python programs.

In Python 3.x, all strings are Unicode by default. However, in Python 2.x, you need to use the 'u' prefix to define a Unicode string.

For instance, if you want to create a string with Chinese characters in Python 2.x, you would need to use the 'u' prefix like so:

chinese_string = u'你好' print(chinese_string)

When you run this code, you'll get the output:

$ 你好

Which is "Hello" in Chinese.

Note: In Python 3.x, you can still use the 'u' prefix, but it's not necessary because all strings are Unicode by default.

So, that's the 'u' prefix. It helps you work with international text in your Python programs, especially if you're using Python 2.x. But what about the 'r' prefix? We'll dive into that in the next section.

The 'r' String Prefix

The 'r' prefix in Python denotes a raw string literal. When you prefix a string with 'r', it tells Python to interpret the string exactly as it is and not to interpret any backslashes or special metacharacters that the string might have.

Consider this code:

normal_string = "\tTab character" print(normal_string)


Tab character

Here, \t is interpreted as a tab character. But if we prefix this string with 'r':

raw_string = r"\tTab character" print(raw_string)


\tTab character

You can see that the '\t' is no longer interpreted as a tab character. It's treated as two separate characters: a backslash and 't'.

This is particularly useful when dealing with regular expressions, or when you need to include a lot of backslashes in your string.

Working with 'u' and 'r' Prefixes in Python 2.x

Now, let's talk about Python 2.x. In Python 2.x, the 'u' prefix was used to denote a Unicode string, while the 'r' prefix was used to denote a raw string, just like in Python 3.x.

However, the difference lies in the default string type. In Python 3.x, all strings are Unicode by default. But in Python 2.x, strings were ASCII by default. So, if you needed to work with Unicode strings in Python 2.x, you had to prefix them with 'u'.

# Python 2.x unicode_string = u"Hello, world!" print(unicode_string)


Hello, world!

But what if you needed a string to be both Unicode and raw in Python 2.x? You could use both 'u' and 'r' prefixes together, like this:

# Python 2.x unicode_raw_string = ur"\tHello, world!" print(unicode_raw_string)


\tHello, world!

Note: The 'ur' syntax is not supported in Python 3.x. If you need a string to be both raw and Unicode in Python 3.x, you can use the 'r' prefix alone, because all strings are Unicode by default.

The key point here is that the 'u' prefix was more important in Python 2.x due to the ASCII default. In Python 3.x, all strings are Unicode by default, so the 'u' prefix is not as essential. However, the 'r' prefix is still very useful for working with raw strings in both versions.

Using Raw String Literals

Now that we understand what raw string literals are, let's look at more examples of how we can use them in our Python code.

One of the most common uses for raw string literals is in regular expressions. Regular expressions often include backslashes, which can lead to issues if not handled correctly. By using a raw string literal, we can more easily avoid these problems.

Another common use case for raw string literals is when working with Windows file paths. As you may know, Windows uses backslashes in its file paths, which can cause issues in Python due to the backslash's role as an escape character. By using a raw string literal, we can avoid these issues entirely.

Here's an example:

# Without raw string path = "C:\\path\\to\\file" print(path) # Output: C:\path o\file # With raw string path = r"C:\\path\\to\\file" print(path) # Output: C:\\path\\to\\file

As you can see, the raw string literal allows us to correctly represent the file path, while the standard string does not.

Common Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

When working with 'u' and 'r' string prefixes and raw string literals in Python, there are a number of common mistakes that developers often make. Let's go through some of them and see how you can avoid them.

First, one common mistake is using the 'u' prefix in Python 3.x. Remember, the 'u' prefix is not needed in Python 3.x as strings are Unicode by default in this version. Using it won't cause an error, but it's redundant and could potentially confuse other developers reading your code.

# This is redundant in Python 3.x u_string = u'Hello, World!'

Second, forgetting to use the 'r' prefix when working with regular expressions can lead to unexpected results due to escape sequences. Always use the 'r' prefix when dealing with regular expressions in Python.

# This might not work as expected regex = '\bword\b' # This is the correct way regex = r'\bword\b'

Last, not understanding that raw string literals do not treat the backslash as a special character can lead to errors. For instance, if you're trying to include a literal backslash at the end of a raw string, you might run into issues as Python still interprets a single backslash at the end of the string as escaping the closing quote. To include a backslash at the end, you need to escape it with another backslash, even in a raw string.

# This will cause a SyntaxError raw_string = r'C:\path\' # This is the correct way raw_string = r'C:\path\\' Conclusion

In this article, we've explored the 'u' and 'r' string prefixes in Python, as well as raw string literals. We've learned that the 'u' prefix is used to denote Unicode strings, while the 'r' prefix is used for raw strings, which treat backslashes as literal characters rather than escape characters. We also delved into common mistakes when using these prefixes and raw string literals, and how to avoid them.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Stack Abuse: When to Use Shebangs in Python Scripts

Sat, 2023-09-09 10:12

At some point when writing Python code, you may have come across a line at the top of some scripts that looks something like this: #!/usr/bin/env python3. This line, known as a shebang, is more than just a quirky looking comment. It actually an important role in how scripts are executed in Unix-like operating systems.

The Shebang

Let's start by understanding what a shebang actually is. A shebang, also known as a hashbang, is a two-character sequence (#!) that appears at the very start of a script. It's followed by the path to the interpreter that should be used to run the script. Here's an example of a simple script with a shebang:

#!/usr/bin/env python3 print("Hello, World!")

When you run this script from the command line, the operating system uses the shebang to determine that it should use the Python 3 interpreter located at /usr/bin/env python3 to execute the script.

Note: The shebang must be the very first thing in the file. Even a single space or comment before it will cause it to be ignored.

Why Use Shebang in Python Scripts

So why should you bother with shebangs in your Python scripts? The main reason is portability and convenience. If you include a shebang in your script, you can run it directly from the command line without having to explicitly invoke the Python interpreter. This can make the scripts easier to run.

$ ./

This is more convenient than having to type python3 every time you want to run your script. It also means that your script can be used in the same way as any other command-line tool, which makes it easier to integrate with other scripts and tools.

How to Use Shebang in Python Scripts

Using a shebang in your Python scripts is straightforward. Just add it as the first line of your script, followed by the path to the Python interpreter you want to use. Here's an example:

#!/usr/bin/env python3 # Rest of your script goes here...

In this example, and the previous ones throughout this Byte, /usr/bin/env python3 is the path to the Python 3 interpreter. The env command is used to find the Python interpreter in the system's PATH.

Note: It's better to use /usr/bin/env python3 rather than hard-coding the path to the Python interpreter (like /usr/bin/python3). This will ensure that the script will use whichever Python interpreter appears first in the system's PATH, which makes your script more portable across different systems.

When to Use Shebangs

The shebang (#!) is not always needed in Python scripts, but there are certain times where it's useful. If you're running your script directly from the terminal, the shebang can help.

$ python3

With the shebang, you can make your script executable and run it like this:

$ ./

That's a bit cleaner, isn't it? This is especially useful when you're writing scripts that will be used frequently, or by other users who may not know (or care) which interpreter they should use.

Specifics of Shebang in Different Shells

The shebang works pretty much the same in all Unix shells. However, there are some nuances worth mentioning. For example, in the Bourne shell (sh) and Bash, the shebang must be the very first line of the script. If there's any whitespace or other characters before the shebang, it won't be recognized.

In other shells like csh and tcsh, the shebang is not recognized at all. In these cases, you have to call the interpreter explicitly.

Also, keep in mind that not all systems have the same default shell. So if your script uses features specific to a certain shell (like arrays in Bash), you should specify that shell in your shebang, like so: #!/bin/bash.


The shebang is a simple way to make your Python scripts more user-friendly and portable. It's not always necessary, but it's good practice to include it in your scripts, especially if they're meant to be used on Unix-based systems.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Stack Abuse: Importing Multiple CSV Files into a Single DataFrame using Pandas in Python

Fri, 2023-09-08 17:09

In this Byte we're going to talk about how to import multiple CSV files into Pandas and concatenate them into a single DataFrame. This is a common scenario in data analysis where you need to combine data from different sources into a single data structure for analysis.

Pandas and CSVs

Pandas is a very popular data manipulation library in Python. One of its most appreciated features is its ability to read and write various formats of data, including CSV files. CSV is a simple file format used to store tabular data, like a spreadsheet or database.

Pandas provides the read_csv() function to read CSV files and convert them into a DataFrame. A DataFrame is similar to a spreadsheet or SQL table, or a dict of Series objects. We'll see examples of how to use this later in the Byte.

Why Concatenate Multiple CSV Files

It's possible that your data is distributed across multiple CSV files, especially for a very large dataset. For example, you might have monthly sales data stored in separate CSV files for each month. In these cases, you'll need to concatenate these files into a single DataFrame to perform analysis on the entire dataset.

Concatenating multiple CSV files allows you to perform operations on the entire dataset at once, rather than applying the same operation to each file individually. This not only saves time but also makes your code cleaner, easier to understand, and easier to write.

Reading a Single CSV File into a DataFrame

Before we get into reading multiple CSV files, it might help to first understand how to read a single CSV file into a DataFrame using Pandas.

The read_csv() function is used to read a CSV file into a DataFrame. You just need to pass the file name as a parameter to this function.

Here's an example:

import pandas as pd df = pd.read_csv('sales_january.csv') print(df.head())

In this example, we're reading the sales_january.csv file into a DataFrame. The head() function is used to get the first n rows. By default, it returns the first 5 rows. The output might look something like this:

Product SalesAmount Date Salesperson 0 Apple 100 2023-01-01 Bob 1 Banana 50 2023-01-02 Alice 2 Cherry 30 2023-01-03 Carol 3 Apple 80 2023-01-03 Dan 4 Orange 60 2023-01-04 Emily

Note: If your CSV file is not in the same directory as your Python script, you need to specify the full path to the file in the read_csv() function.

Reading Multiple CSV Files into a Single DataFrame

Now that we've seen how to read a single CSV file into a DataFrame, let's see how we can read multiple CSV files into a single DataFrame using a loop.

Here's how you can read multiple CSV files into a single DataFrame:

import pandas as pd import glob files = glob.glob('path/to/your/csv/files/*.csv') # Initialize an empty DataFrame to hold the combined data combined_df = pd.DataFrame() for filename in files: df = pd.read_csv(filename) combined_df = pd.concat([combined_df, df], ignore_index=True)

In this code, we initialize an empty DataFrame named combined_df. For each file that we read into a DataFrame (df), we concatenate it to combined_df using the pd.concat function. The ignore_index=True parameter reindexes the DataFrame after concatenation, ensuring that the index remains continuous and unique.

Note: The glob module is part of the standard Python library and is used to find all the pathnames matching a specified pattern, in line with Unix shell rules.

This approach will compiles multiple CSV files into a single DataFrame.

Use Cases of Combined DataFrames

Concatenating multiple DataFrames can be very useful in a variety of situations. For example, suppose you're a data scientist working with sales data. Your data might be spread across multiple CSV files, each representing a different quarter of the year. By concatenating these files into a single DataFrame, you can analyze the entire year's data at once.

Or perhaps you're working with sensor data that's been logged every day to a new CSV file. Concatenating these files would allow you to analyze trends over time, identify anomalies, and more.

In short, whenever you have related data spread across multiple CSV files, concatenating them into a single DataFrame can make your analysis much easier.


In this Byte, we've learned how to read multiple CSV files into separate Pandas DataFrames and then concatenate them into a single DataFrame. This is a useful way to work with large, spread-out datasets. Whether you're a data scientist analyzing sales data, a researcher working with sensor logs, or just someone trying to make sense of a large dataset, Pandas' handling of CSV files and DataFrame concatenation can be a big help.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Stack Abuse: Determining the Size of an Object in Python

Fri, 2023-09-08 13:21

When writing code, you may need to determine how much memory a particular object is consuming. There are a number of reasons you may need to know this, with the most obvious reason being storage capacity constraints. This Byte will show you how to determine the size of an object in Python. We'll do this primarily with Python's built-in sys.getsizeof() function.

Why Determine the Size of an Object?

Figuring out the size of an object in Python can be quite useful, especially when dealing with large data sets or complex objects. Knowing the size of an object can help optimize your code to reduce memory usage, which can lead to better performance. Plus, it can help you troubleshoot issues related to memory consumption.

For example, if your application is running out of memory and crashing, determining the size of objects can help you pinpoint the objects using up the most memory. This can be a lifesaver when you're dealing with memory-intensive tasks.

Using sys.getsizeof() to Determine the Size

Python provides a built-in function, sys.getsizeof(), which can be used to determine the size of an object. This function returns the size in bytes.

Here's a simple example:

import sys # Create a list my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] # Determine the size of the list size = sys.getsizeof(my_list) print(f"The size of the list is {size} bytes.")

When you run this code, you'll see an output like this:

$ python3 The size of the list is 104 bytes.

In this example, sys.getsizeof() returns the size of the list object my_list in bytes.

Variations of sys.getsizeof()

While sys.getsizeof() can be very useful, you should understand that it does not always provide the complete picture when it comes to the size of an object.

Note: sys.getsizeof() only returns the immediate memory consumption of an object, but it does not include the memory consumed by other objects it refers to.

For example, if you have a list of lists, sys.getsizeof() will only return the size of the outer list, not the total size including the inner lists.

import sys # Create a list of lists my_list = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]] # Determine the size of the list size = sys.getsizeof(my_list) print(f"The size of the list is {size} bytes.")

When you run this code, you'll see an output like this:

$ python3 The size of the list is 80 bytes.

As you can see, sys.getsizeof() returns the size of the outer list, but not the size of the inner lists. This is something to keep in mind when using sys.getsizeof() to determine the size of complex objects in Python.

In this case, you'll need to get the size of the outer list and each inner list. A recursive approach would help you get a more accurate number.

Using pympler.asizeof() for More Accurate Object Sizes

While sys.getsizeof() is a built-in method in Python, it doesn't always provide the most accurate results, particularly for complex objects. To get a more precise measure, we can use the asizeof() function from the Pympler library.

Pympler is a development tool for measuring, monitoring, and analyzing the memory behavior of Python objects in a running Python application.

To use asizeof(), you'll need to first install Pympler using pip:

$ pip3 install pympler

Once installed, you can use asizeof() like this:

from pympler import asizeof my_list = list(range(1000)) print(asizeof.asizeof(my_list))

In this example, asizeof() will return the total size of my_list, including all of its elements.

Unlike sys.getsizeof(), asizeof() includes the sizes of nested objects in its calculations, making it a more accurate tool for determining the size of complex objects.

Comparing sys.getsizeof() and pympler.asizeof()

Let's compare the results of sys.getsizeof() and asizeof() for a complex object, like a dictionary with several key-value pairs.

import sys from pympler import asizeof my_dict = {i: str(i) for i in range(1000)} print('sys.getsizeof():', sys.getsizeof(my_dict)) print('asizeof():', asizeof.asizeof(my_dict)) $ python3 sys.getsizeof(): 36960 asizeof(): 124952

As you can see, asizeof() returns a value that is over 3.3 times larger than what is returned by sys.getsizeof(). This is because sys.getsizeof() only measures the memory consumed by the dictionary itself, not all of the contents it contains. On the other hand, asizeof() measures the total size, including the dictionary and all its contents.

Dealing with Memory Management in Python

Python's memory management can sometimes be a bit opaque, particularly for new developers. The language does much of the heavy lifting automatically, such as allocating and deallocating memory (which is also why so many people prefer to use it). However, understanding how Python uses memory can help you write more efficient code.

One important thing to note is that Python uses a system of reference counting for memory management. This means that Python automatically keeps track of the number of references to an object in memory. When an object's reference count drops to zero, Python knows it can safely deallocate that memory.

Side Note: Python's garbage collector comes into play when there are circular references - that is, when a group of objects reference each other, but are not referenced anywhere else. In a case like this, even though their reference count is not technically zero, they can still be safely removed from memory.


Understanding how to measure the size of objects in Python can be a useful tool in optimizing or even debugging your code, particularly for applications that handle large amounts of data. While Python's built-in sys.getsizeof() function can be useful, the asizeof() function from the Pympler library offers a more accurate measure for complex objects.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Python Engineering at Microsoft: Python in Visual Studio Code – September 2023 Release

Fri, 2023-09-08 11:43

We’re excited to announce the September 2023 release of the Python and Jupyter extensions for Visual Studio Code!

This release includes the following announcements:

  • “Recreate” or “Use Existing” options added to the Python: Create Environment command
  • Experimental terminal activation using environment variables
  • Community-contributed yapf extension

If you’re interested, you can check the full list of improvements in our changelogs for the Python, Jupyter, and Pylance extensions.

“Recreate” or “Use Existing” options when using Python: Create Environment with existing .venv

When working within a workspace that already contains a .venv folder, the Python: Create Environment command has been updated to provide you with options to either recreate or use the existing environment. If you opt-in to recreate the environment, your current .venv will be deleted, allowing you to recreate a new environment named .venv. You can customize this new environment by following the Python: Create Environment flow, selecting your preferred interpreter, and specifying any dependency files for installation. In the case the environment cannot be deleted, for example, due to it being active, you will be prompted to delete the environment manually.

Alternatively, if you opt to use the existing environment, the environment will be selected for your workspace.

Experimental terminal activation using environment variables

This month, we are beginning the rollout of terminal activation using environment variables that activate the selected environment in the terminal without requiring any activation commands. With this new experience, the Python extension uses environment variables to activate terminals, which is done implicitly on terminal launch, resulting in a faster experience, particularly for conda users. This experiment will serve as the default experience for 25% of Pre-release users behind the experimental ["pythonTerminalEnvVarActivation"] flag. You can opt into or out of this experiment in your User settings by modifying "python.experiments.optInto" or "python.experiments.optOutFrom" respectively in your settings.json. If you have any comments or suggestions regarding this experience, please share them in vscode-python#11039.

Community-contributed yapf extension

There is now a community-contributed (@EeyoreLee) yapf formatter extension available! This extension provides yapf formatting support for Python files and Notebook cells. Yapf support built into the Python extension will be deprecated in favor of the extension support. Subsequently, the corresponding setting python.formatting.yapf will be removed from the Python extension.

This corresponds to the work announced in April 2022 to break out the tools support we offer in the Python extension for Visual Studio Code into separate extensions, with the intent of improving performance, and stability and no longer requiring the tools to be installed in a Python environment – as they can be shipped alongside an extension.

Other Changes and Enhancements

We have also added small enhancements and fixed issues requested by users that should improve your experience working with Python and Jupyter Notebooks in Visual Studio Code. Some notable changes include:

  • Unresolved import errors now indicate in which environment Pylance is looking for packages (pylance-release#4368)
  • There’s a new experimental setting called python.analysis.enableSyncServer that enables multi-file IntelliSense support in Support for and virtual workspaces is coming soon!
  • Pylance no longer crashes on Jupyter Notebook cell deletion (@pylance-release#4685)
  • There is a new dedicated topic on Python formatting in our docs where you’ll learn how to set a default formatter such as autopep8 or Black formatter and customize it through various settings.

We would also like to extend special thanks to this month’s contributors:

Call for Community Feedback

As we are planning and prioritizing future work, we value your feedback! Below are a few issues we would love feedback on:

Try out these new improvements by downloading the Python extension and the Jupyter extension from the Marketplace, or install them directly from the extensions view in Visual Studio Code (Ctrl + Shift + X or ⌘ + ⇧ + X). You can learn more about Python support in Visual Studio Code in the documentation. If you run into any problems or have suggestions, please file an issue on the Python VS Code GitHub page.

The post Python in Visual Studio Code – September 2023 Release appeared first on Python.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Mike Driscoll: How to Validate an IP Address in Python

Fri, 2023-09-08 09:16

Validating data is one of the many tasks engineers face around the world. Your users make typos as often as anyone else, so you must try to catch those errors.

One common type of information that an engineer will need to capture is someone who wants to edit or enter an IP address for a device. These addresses are made up of four sets of numbers separated by periods. Each of these four sets are made up of integers from 0-255.

The lowest IP address would be, and the highest would be

In this article, you will look at the following ways to validate an IP address with Python:

  • Using the socket module
  • Using the ipaddress module

Let’s get started!

Using the socket Module

Python has lots of modules or libraries built-in to the language. One of those modules is the socket module.

Here is how you can validate an IP address using the socket module:

import socket try: socket.inet_aton(ip_address) print(f"{ip_address is valid") except socket.error: print(f"{ip_address} is not valid!")

Unfortunately, this doesn’t work with all valid IP addresses. For example, this code won’t work IPv6 variants, only IPv4. You can use socket.inet_pton(socket_family, address)  and specify which IP version you want to use, which may work. However, the inet_pton() function is only available on Unix.

Luckily, there is a better way!

Using the ipaddress Module

Python also includes the ipaddress module in its standard library. This module is available for use on all platforms and can be used to validate IPv4 and IPv6.

Here is how you can validate an IP address using Python’s built-in ipaddress module:

import ipaddress def ip_address_validator(ip): try: ip_obj = ipaddress.ip_address(ip) print(f"{ip} is a valid IP address") except ValueError: print(f"ERROR: {ip} is not a valid IP address!") ip_address_validator("")

The ipaddress module makes validating IP addresses even simpler than the socket module!

Wrapping Up

The Python programming language provides a couple of modules that you can use to validate IP addresses. You can use either the socket module or the ipaddress module. The socket module has some limitations on platforms other than Unix. That makes using the ipaddress module preferable since you may use it on any platform.

Note: You could probably find a regular expression that you could use to validate an IP address, too. However, leveraging the ipaddress module is simpler and easier to debug.

The post How to Validate an IP Address in Python appeared first on Mouse Vs Python.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Real Python: The Real Python Podcast – Episode #171: Making Each Line of Code Efficient & Python In Excel

Fri, 2023-09-08 08:00

Are you writing efficient Python with as few lines of code as possible? Are you familiar with the many built-in language features that will simplify your code and make it more Pythonic? Christopher Trudeau is back on the show this week, bringing another batch of PyCoder's Weekly articles and projects.

[ Improve Your Python With 🐍 Python Tricks 💌 – Get a short & sweet Python Trick delivered to your inbox every couple of days. >> Click here to learn more and see examples ]

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

PyBites: Excel Embraces Python, Opening Doors to New Roles and How PDI Can Help

Fri, 2023-09-08 07:09

In this episode, we delve into the groundbreaking integration of Python within Microsoft Excel and its transformative impact on non-tech professions.

Listen here:

Or watch here:

Discover how this evolution empowers professionals across diverse fields and the dynamic opportunities it presents for career advancement.

We also shine a spotlight on the achievements of people through our Pybites Developer Initialization (PDI) program, illustrating how it’s shaping the next generation of Python enthusiasts

Celebrate with us as Python broadens its horizons.

00:00 Intro music
00:55 Wins (productivity / mindset)
03:58 Python is getting even bigger and is for everyone
06:00 Excel chose Python / non-techie people adopting Python
08:18 How can we help? Pybites Developer Initialization (PDI)
09:07 The kind of people that join PDI and their results
12:37 Some amazing PDI wins
15:28 Spread the word: who can benefit from Python in their career?
17:08 AI tools becoming more pervasive
17:45 Books (The Carbon Almanac + The Four Agreements)
19:30 Wrap up: thank you + homepage update
20:34 Next episode hint
21:00 Outro music

Seeking a career pivot with Python? Facing challenges as a beginner or bridging the initial developer gap?

Discover our Pybites Developer Initialization (PDI) – a 6-week immersive journey.

Transition from novice to confident coder with hands-on guidance and dedicated 1:1 mentorship.

– The Four Agreements
– The Carbon Almanac

Other links:
– Why weekly wins tracking matters

Thanks for tuning in every week and we’ll be back next week with a fresh new episode …

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

EuroPython Society: EuroPython Society General Assembly 2023

Fri, 2023-09-08 07:02

Following our previous call for EuroPython Society Board Candidates, we&aposve received several self-nominations from our members.  We&aposre not only excited to introduce these candidates to you soon but also delighted to formally invite all EPS members to attend attend this year&aposs General Assembly, which will once again be conducted online to ensure broad member participation:

💌EuroPython Society General Assembly 2023: 19:00 21:00 CEST, Sunday, 1 October 2023 (check your local time here).

In recent years, we&aposve observed lower turnout at our General Assembly meetings, and we recognise the importance of improving this. As an EPS member, your active involvement is crucial in shaping the future of our Society. We sincerely hope to see more participation from our members this year! By joining the meeting and exercising your vote in the next Board and important Society matters, you play a pivotal role in our decision-making process. Please note that the online meeting is exclusive to EPS members, but we will also record it and share it on YouTube for transparency.

A separate calendar invite containing the Zoom link will be sent to all members subscribed to this mailing list for your convenience. If you&aposre an EPS member and haven&apost received the calendar invite, please reach out to us at

We sincerely appreciate your support for EPS and look forward to seeing many of you there!

🐍Becoming an EPS member
If you&aposre not an EPS member yet but are considering joining, you can find the details and submit your application here.

Board Nominations

Each year during the GA, we hold elections for the next EPS Board of Directors. If you&aposre an EPS member interested in running for the board or nominating someone else, please submit your nomination notice along with a brief biography. Although the official deadline for nominations is at the time of the GA, we kindly request that you email your nominations to by Monday, 18 September  2023. To keep things transparent, all board nominations and nomination statements will be compiled here. So all members can already find information about candidates on this document, and we will also publish everything on a separate blog post before the GA.

For more details about the Board&aposs responsibilities and the nomination process, please refer to our earlier Call for Board Candidates post.

General Assembly Agenda

You can access the draft agenda and a timeline overview here for reference. The agenda covers all the items specified in Section 8 of the EPS bylaws. We will continuously update it with links to reports as they become available and use it as a live minute during the General Assembly. Additionally, we will include any motions from the board and members. Once everything is updated, we&aposll send you another email by Monday 25 September 2023. We encourage our members to review the information in advance and raise any questions during the meeting.

Propositions from the board
  • None at the moment.

Should there be any propositions from the board, they will be announced and made available to all our members by Monday 25 September 2023, as per Section 10 of our bylaws.

Motions from the members
  • None at the moment.

All EPS members have the right to propose motions to be voted on at the GA.

If you want to raise a motion, please send it to no later than Friday, 22 September 2023, , so that we can add them to the agenda. The bylaws require that members’ motions be announced at least 5 days before the GA and we will need time to clarify details and make the agenda available to our members accordingly.

Hope to see many of you at the EPS 2023 GA! ❤️🐍

Raquel Dou
EuroPython Society Chair
on behalf of the EPS board

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Stack Abuse: How to Copy Files in Python

Thu, 2023-09-07 16:32

Whether you're reading data from files or writing data to files, understanding file operations is important. In Python, and other languages, we often need to copy files from one directory to another, or even within the same directory. This article will guide you through the process of copying files in Python using various modules and methods.

Python's Filesystem and File Operations

Python provides several built-in modules and functions to interact with the filesystem and perform file operations. The two most commonly used modules for file operations are the os and shutil modules.

The os module provides a way of using operating system dependent functionality. It includes functions for interacting with the filesystem, such as os.rename(), os.remove(), os.mkdir(), and so on.

import os # Rename a file os.rename('old_name.txt', 'new_name.txt') # Remove a file os.remove('file_to_remove.txt') # Create a directory os.mkdir('new_directory')

The shutil module offers a number of high-level operations on files and collections of files. It comes under Python’s standard utility modules. This module helps in automating process of copying and removal of files and directories.

import shutil # Copy a file shutil.copy('source.txt', 'destination.txt') # Remove a directory and all its contents shutil.rmtree('directory_to_remove')

Note: While os module functions are efficient for simple file operations, for higher-level file operations such as copying or moving files and directories, shutil module functions are more convenient.

Now, let's dive deeper into how we can use these modules to copy files in Python.

How to Copy Files in Python

Python, being a high-level programming language, provides us with several modules to simplify various tasks. One of those tasks is copying files. Whether you want to back up your data or move it to another location, Python makes it easy to copy files and directories. Here we'll take a look at how to copy files using different built-in modules.

Using the shutil Module to Copy Files

The shutil module has methods that help in operations like copying, moving, or removing files/directories. One of its most used functionalities is the ability to copy files.

To copy a file in Python using the shutil module, we use the shutil.copy() function. This function takes two parameters: the source file path and the destination path.

Let's look at an example:

import shutil source = "/path/to/source/file.txt" destination = "/path/to/destination/file.txt" shutil.copy(source, destination)

In this code snippet, we first import the shutil module. We then define the source and destination file paths. Finally, we call the shutil.copy() function with the source and destination as arguments.

Note: The shutil.copy() function will overwrite the destination file if it already exists. So, be cautious while using it!

If you want to preserve the metadata (like permissions, modification times) while copying, you can use the shutil.copy2() function. This works the same way as shutil.copy(), but it also copies the metadata.

import shutil source = "/path/to/source/file.txt" destination = "/path/to/destination/file.txt" shutil.copy2(source, destination) Using the os Module to Copy Files

Python's built-in os module is another great tool for interacting with the operating system. Among its many features, and just like shutil, it allows us to copy files. However, it's important to note that the os module doesn't provide a direct method to copy files like shutil does. Instead, we can use the os.system() function to execute shell commands within our Python script.

Here's how you'd use the os.system() function to copy a file:

import os # Define source and destination paths src = "/path/to/source/file.txt" dest = "/path/to/destination/file.txt" # Use os.system to execute the cp shell command os.system(f'cp {src} {dest}')

After running this script, you'll find that file.txt has been copied from the source path to the destination path.

Wait! Since the os.system() function can execute any shell command, it can also be a potential security risk if misused, so always be careful when using it.

This may be a helpful way to copy files if you also need to execute other shell commands or use cp flags that aren't available with shutil's methods.

Copying Files with Wildcards

In other use-cases, you might want to copy multiple files at once. Let's say we want to copy all .txt files in a directory. We can achieve this by using wildcards (*) in our file paths. The glob module in Python can be used to find all the pathnames matching a specified pattern according to the rules used by the Unix shell.

Here's is how we'd use the glob module to copy all .txt files from one directory to another:

import glob import shutil # Define source and destination directories src_dir = "/path/to/source/directory/*.txt" dest_dir = "/path/to/destination/directory/" # Use glob to get all .txt files in the source directory txt_files = glob.glob(src_dir) # Loop through the list of .txt files and copy each one for file in txt_files: shutil.copy(file, dest_dir)

In this code, we use glob to get a list of all text files in our source directory, which we then iterate over and copy each one individually.

After running this script, you'll see that all .txt files from the source directory have been copied to the destination directory.

Copying Directories in Python

Copying individual files in Python is quite straightforward, as we've seen. But what if you want to copy an entire directory? While it sounds more complicated, this is actually pretty easy to do with the shutil module. The copytree() function allows you to copy directories, along with all the files and sub-directories within them.

import shutil shutil.copytree('/path/to/source_directory', '/path/to/destination_directory')

This will copy the entire directory at the source path to the destination path. If the destination directory doesn't exist, copytree() will create it.

Note: If the destination directory already exists, copytree() will raise a FileExistsError. To avoid this, make sure the destination directory doesn't exist before you run the function.

Error Handling and Types of Errors

When dealing with file operations in Python, it's important to handle potential errors. There are many types of errors you might encounter, with some of the more common ones being FileNotFoundError, PermissionError, and IsADirectoryError.

You can handle these errors using Python's try/except blocks like this:

import shutil try: shutil.copy2('/path/to/source_file', '/path/to/destination_file') except FileNotFoundError: print("The source or destination file was not found.") except PermissionError: print("You don't have permission to access the source or destination file.") except IsADirectoryError: print("The source or destination path you provided is a directory, not a file.")

In this example, we're using the shutil.copy2() function to copy a file. If the source or destination file doesn't exist, a FileNotFoundError is raised. If the user doesn't have the necessary permissions, a PermissionError is raised. If the source or destination path is a directory instead of a file, an IsADirectoryError is raised. Catching each error in this way allows you to handle each case in the appropriate way.


In this article, we have showed different ways to copy files in Python. We saw how the Python's built-in shutil and os modules provide us with simple and powerful tools for file copying. We also showed how to employ wildcards to copy multiple files and how to copy entire directories.

And finally, we looked at a few different types of common errors that might occur during file operations and how to handle them. Understanding these errors can help you debug your code more efficiently and prevent issues, like data loss.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

CodersLegacy: pythonw.exe Tutorial: Running Python Scripts Silently

Thu, 2023-09-07 13:47

Python is a versatile programming language known for its simplicity and wide range of applications. It is commonly used for web development, data analysis, artificial intelligence, and more. While Python scripts are typically executed through the Python interpreter, there are situations where you may want to run scripts silently, without a visible console window. This is where pythonw.exe comes into play. In this tutorial, we’ll explore what pythonw.exe is and how to use it effectively.

What is pythonw.exe?

pythonw.exe is an executable file that comes bundled with Python on Windows operating systems. It is similar to the standard python.exe interpreter, but with one crucial difference: it doesn’t display a console window when running Python scripts. This makes it ideal for running scripts in the background or as part of a graphical application where a visible command prompt is undesirable.

Here are some common scenarios where you might use pythonw.exe:

  1. Graphical User Interface (GUI) Applications: When creating GUI applications using libraries like Tkinter, PyQt, or wxPython, you may want to run Python scripts without a console window to maintain a seamless user experience.
  2. Scheduled Tasks: For automating tasks using Windows Task Scheduler, using pythonw.exe ensures that the script runs silently without interrupting the user.
  3. System Services: Running Python scripts as Windows services is possible with pythonw.exe, as it operates without a console window and can run in the background without user interaction.
  4. Desktop Widgets: If you’re building desktop widgets or small utilities that don’t require user input, pythonw.exe can keep the script discreet.
Running Python Scripts with pythonw.exe

Running Python scripts with pythonw.exe is straightforward. Follow these steps to execute your Python code silently:

  1. Create Your Python Script: Write your Python script as you normally would, using your preferred code editor or IDE.
  2. Save the Script: Save your Python script with the .py extension. Ensure it’s saved in a location that you can easily access.
  3. Open Command Prompt: Press Win + R, type cmd, and press Enter to open the Command Prompt.
  4. Navigate to the Script’s Directory: Use the cd command to navigate to the directory where your Python script is located. For example:
cd C:\path\to\your\script\directory
  1. Execute the Script with pythonw.exe: To run your script silently, use the following command: (Replace with the name of your Python script)
  1. Script Execution: The script will run silently without displaying a console window. Any output or errors generated by the script will not be visible on the screen.
Handling Output and Errors

When running a script with pythonw.exe, any print statements or errors will not be displayed in a console window. To capture the output and errors, you can redirect them to a file. For example, you can modify the script execution command like this:

pythonw > output.log 2> error.log

This command redirects the standard output (stdout) to output.log and the standard error (stderr) to error.log. You can then review these log files to troubleshoot issues or monitor script progress.


pythonw.exe is a handy tool for running Python scripts silently on Windows. Whether you’re building GUI applications, automating tasks, or running Python scripts as services, pythonw.exe allows you to execute your code discreetly without the distraction of a console window. By following this tutorial, you should now have a clear understanding of what pythonw.exe is and how to use it effectively in various scenarios.

The post pythonw.exe Tutorial: Running Python Scripts Silently appeared first on CodersLegacy.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Stack Abuse: Python: How to Specify a GitHub Repo in requirements.txt

Thu, 2023-09-07 12:59

In Python the requirements.txt file helps manage dependencies. It's a simple text file that lists the packages that your Python project depends on. But did you know you can also specify a direct GitHub repo as a source in your requirements.txt? In this Byte, we'll explore how and why to do this.

Why specify a direct GitHub repo?

There are a few reasons why you might want to specify a direct GitHub repo in your requirements.txt file. Maybe the package you need isn't available on PyPI, or perhaps you need a specific version of a package that's only available on GitHub (after all, in some older packages, updates don't always get published on PyPI). Or, you could be collaborating on a project and want to use the most recent changes that haven't been pushed to PyPI yet.

For instance, there have been a few times where I needed a feature from a Python library that was only available in the development branch on GitHub. By specifying the direct GitHub repo in our requirements.txt, we were able to use this feature before it was officially released.

And lastly, you can use direct URLs as a way to use private repos from GitHub.

How to Use a Direct GitHub Source in requirements.txt

To specify a direct GitHub repo in your requirements.txt, you'll need to use the following format:


Let's say we want to install the latest code from the requests library directly from GitHub. We would add the following line to our requirements.txt:


Then, we can install the dependencies from our requirements.txt as usual:

$ pip install -r requirements.txt

You'll see that pip clones the requests repo and installs it.

Variations of the Repo URL

There are a few variations of the repo URL you can use, depending on your needs.

If you want to install a specific branch, use the @ symbol followed by the branch name:


To install a specific commit, use the @ symbol followed by the commit hash:


And of course, another commonly used version is for private repos. For those, you can use an access token:


Wait! Be careful with access tokens, they're similar to passwords in that they give access to your account. Don't commit them to your version control system.

I'd recommend using environment variables to keep them secure. When using environment variables (i.e. ${GH_ACCESS_TOKEN}), pip will replace it when installing from requirements.txt.


Being able to specify a direct GitHub source in your requirements.txt gives you more flexibility in managing your Python project's dependencies. Whether you need a specific version of a package, want to use a feature that hasn't been officially released yet, or are working with private repos, this technique can be a very useful tool in your development workflow.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

TechBeamers Python: Python Print() with Examples

Thu, 2023-09-07 11:38

Introduction to Python print() with Examples The Python print() function is a built-in function that prints text either plain or in a specific format with or without the newline to the standard output device, which is typically the console. The message can be a string, a number, a list, a dictionary, or any other object. [...]

The post Python Print() with Examples appeared first on TechBeamers.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Stack Abuse: How to Update pip in a Virtual Environment

Thu, 2023-09-07 11:18

In Python, pip is a widely used package manager that allows developers to install and manage 3rd party libraries that are not part of the Python standard library. When working within a virtual environment, you may need to make sure that pip itself is up-to-date. This Byte will guide you through the process of updating pip within a virtual environment, and dealing with any errors that you may encounter.

pip and Virtual Environments

Python's virtual environments are an important part of Python development. They allow developers to create isolated spaces for their projects, making sure that each project can have its own set of dependencies that do not interfere with each other.

pip is the go-to tool for managing these dependencies. However, like any other software, pip itself gets updated from time to time. If one of your projects has been around for a long time, you'll likely need to update pip at some point. That or maybe the virtual environment you created came with a flawed version of pip, so you need to update it to resolve issues.

Upgrading pip

Upgrading pip in a virtual environment is fairly straightforward. First, you need to activate your virtual environment. The command to do this will depend on your operating system and the tool you used to create the virtual environment.

On Unix or MacOS, if you used venv to create your environment, you would activate it like this:

$ source env/bin/activate

On Windows, you would use:

$ .\env\Scripts\activate

Once your virtual environment is activated, you can upgrade pip using this command:

$ pip install --upgrade pip

However, if you're on Windows, then this is the recommended command:

$ py -m pip install --upgrade pip

This command tells Python to run the pip module, just like it would run a script, and pass install --upgrade pip as arguments.

The --upgrade flag tells pip to upgrade any already installed packages to the latest version. The install command tells pip what to do.

Dealing with Errors During the Upgrade

While upgrading pip, you may encounter some errors. A common error you may see is a PermissionError. This typically happens when you try to upgrade pip that was installed system-wide (i.e., not in a virtual environment), or when you do not have the necessary permissions.

If you see this error, a possible solution is to use a virtual environment where you have full permissions. If you are already in a virtual environment and still encounter this error, you can try using the --user option:

$ pip install --upgrade pip --user

This command tells pip to install the package for the user that is currently logged in, even if they do not have administrative rights.

Upgrading pip in Different Virtual Environment Systems

In the Python ecosystem, different virtual environment systems have different ways of handling pip upgrades. Let's take a look at a few of the most common ones: venv, virtualenv, and pipenv.


Venv is the built-in Python virtual environment system. If you're using venv, you can upgrade pip within your virtual environment by first activating the environment and then running the pip upgrade command. Here's how you do it:

$ source ./venv/bin/activate (venv) $ python -m pip install --upgrade pip

The output should show that pip has been successfully upgraded.


Virtualenv is a third-party Python virtual environment system. The process of upgrading pip in a virtualenv is the same as in venv:

$ source ./myenv/bin/activate (myenv) $ python -m pip install --upgrade pip

Again, the output should confirm that pip has been upgraded.


Pipenv is a bit different. It's not just a virtual environment system, but also a package manager. To upgrade pip in a Pipenv environment, you first need to ensure that Pipenv itself is up-to-date:

$ pip install --upgrade pipenv

Then, you can update pip within the Pipenv environment by running:

$ pipenv run pip install --upgrade pip

Note: If you're using a different virtual environment system, refer to its specific documentation to find out how to upgrade pip.


This byte has shown you how to upgrade pip in three of the most common virtual environment systems: venv, virtualenv, and pipenv. Keeping your tools up-to-date is a good practice to make sure you can get the most out of the latest features and fixes.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Daniel Roy Greenfeld: TIL: Poetry PyPI Project URLS

Thu, 2023-09-07 09:37

Poetry has its own location for urls in the [tool.poetry.urls] table. Per the Poetry documentation on urls:

"In addition to the basic urls (homepage, repository and documentation), you can specify any custom url in the urls section."

[tool.poetry.urls] changelog = "" documentation = "" issues = ""
Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

TechBeamers Python: String concatenation in Python Explained

Thu, 2023-09-07 08:34

String concatenation in Python is the process of joining multiple strings together to create a single string. It’s like combining words to form sentences. In Python, we have various methods to achieve this. We have listed down seven methods for string concatenation. They allow you to manipulate and format text data efficiently. Each section has [...]

The post String concatenation in Python Explained appeared first on TechBeamers.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Matt Layman: SendGrid Inbound - Building SaaS with Python and Django #170

Wed, 2023-09-06 20:00
In this episode, we worked on the inbound hook to receive email responses from SendGrid using the service’s Inbound Parse feature. We worked through the configuration and addressed the security concerns with opening up a public webhook.
Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Stack Abuse: Fixing "ValueError: Truth Value of a Series is Ambiguous" Error in Pandas

Wed, 2023-09-06 17:05

Sometimes when working with Pandas in Python, you might encounter an error message saying "Truth value of a Series is ambiguous. Use a.empty, a.bool(), a.item(), a.any() or a.all()". This Byte will help you understand this error, why it occurs, and how to fix it using different methods.

Why do we get this error?

This error is typically encountered when you're trying to use a Pandas Series in a context where a boolean value is expected. This could be in an if statement, a while loop, or any other conditional expression.

import pandas as pd a = pd.Series([1, 2, 3]) if a: print("This will throw an error")

When you try to run this code, you'll get the error message. The reason is that Python doesn't know how to interpret the truth value of a Series. It could mean "is the Series non-empty?" or "are all values in the Series True?" or "is at least one value in the Series True?". Because of this ambiguity, Python doesn't know what to do and raises an error.

How to Fix the Error

There are several ways to fix this error, depending on what you want to check. You can use a.empty, a.bool(), a.item(), a.any(), or a.all(). Each of these methods will return a boolean value that Python can interpret unambiguously.

Using a.empty to Avoid the Error

The a.empty attribute checks whether the Series is empty. If the Series has no elements, a.empty returns True. Otherwise, it returns False. Here's how you can use it:

import pandas as pd a = pd.Series([]) if a.empty: print("The Series is empty") else: print("The Series is not empty")

When you run this code, it will print "The Series is empty", because the Series a has no elements.

Using a.bool() to Avoid the Error

The a.bool() method checks whether the Series contains a single element that is True. If the Series contains exactly one element and that element is True, a.bool() returns True. Otherwise, it returns False. This can be useful when you know that the Series should contain exactly one element.

import pandas as pd a = pd.Series([True]) if a.bool(): print("The Series contains a single True value") else: print("The Series does not contain a single True value")

When you run this code, it will print "The Series contains a single True value", because the Series a contains exactly one element and that element is True.

Using a.item() to Avoid the Error

The a.item() function is great for when you're dealing with a series or array that contains only one element. This function will return the value of the single element in your series. If your series contains more than one element, you'll get a ValueError, so make sure that you know only one item exists.

import pandas as pd # Create a single-element series s = pd.Series([1]) # Use a.item() to get the value val = s.item() print(val)



Here, you can see that a.item() has successfully returned the single value from our series. But let's see what happens if we try to use a.item() on a series with more than one element.

# Create a multi-element series s = pd.Series([1, 2]) # Use a.item() to get the value val = s.item()


ValueError: can only convert an array of size 1 to a Python scalar

In this case, a.item() has thrown a ValueError because our series contains more than one element. So remember, a.item() is a great tool for single-element series, but won't work for series with multiple elements.

Using a.any() to Avoid the Error

The a.any() function is another useful tool for handling truth value errors. This function will return True if any element in your series is true and False otherwise. This can be particularly useful when you're looking for a quick way to check if any elements in your series meet a certain condition.

# Create a series s = pd.Series([False, True, False]) # Use a.any() to check if any elements are true any_true = s.any() print(any_true)



Here, a.any() has returned True because at least one element in our series is true. This can be a great way to quickly check if any elements in your series meet a certain condition.

Using a.all() to Avoid the Error

The a.all() function is similar to a.any(), but instead of checking if any elements are true, it checks if all elements are true. This function will return True if all elements in your series are true and False otherwise. Let's take a look at an example.

# Create a series s = pd.Series([True, True, True]) # Use a.all() to check if all elements are true all_true = s.all() print(all_true)



You can see that a.all() has returned True because all elements in our series are true. This can be a simple way to check if all elements in your series meet a certain condition.


In this byte, we've showed several ways to handle the "Truth value of a Series is ambiguous" error in Python. We've seen how using a.item(), a.any(), and a.all() can help us avoid this error and manipulate our series in a way that makes sense for our needs.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Daniel Roy Greenfeld: TIL: pytest with breakpoints

Wed, 2023-09-06 11:45

To inject a breakpoint into a failing pytest run, add --pdb to your pytest command:

py.test --pdb

This will drop you into a pdb session at the point of failure. You can then inspect the state of the program just like you would if you injected a breakpoint().

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets