FLOSS Research

Open Source Initiative Announces New Partnership With Adblock Plus

Open Source Initiative - Tue, 2018-01-16 12:03

PALO ALTO, Calif. - Jan. 16, 2018 -- Adblock Plus, the most popular Internet ad blocker today, joins The Open Source Initiative® (OSI) as corporate sponsors. Since its very first version, Adblock Plus has been an open source project that has developed into a successful business with over 100 million users worldwide. As such, the German company behind it, eyeo GmbH, has decided it is time to give back to the open source community.

Founded in 1998, the OSI protects and promotes open source software, development and communities, championing software freedom in society through education, collaboration, and infrastructure. Adblock Plus is an open source project that aims to rid the Internet of annoying and intrusive online advertising. Its free web browser extensions (add-ons) put users in control by letting them block or filter which ads they want to see.

Commenting on the partnership Patrick Masson, General Manager at the OSI said, "We're very excited to welcome Adblock Plus to the OSI's growing list of sponsors. Adblock Plus and eyeo demonstrate how open source software can not only support business but actually drive business — two important lessons we here at the OSI have been promoting for nearly 20 years."

"With transparency being of utmost importance to us, Adblock Plus has been an open source project from the very start " said Wladimir Palant, eyeo founder & original developer. "This allowed us to build a loyal community around the project, with volunteer contributions helping the project to grow and thrive. We appreciate the work done by our community and will continue investing efforts into keeping Adblock Plus a truly open project where everybody can contribute"

Till Faida, founder and CEO of eyeo adds: "I am proud that we have built a successful company based on open source software. We are convinced that being open is key to innovation, so for us it is a mission and a business case. Today, eyeo has more than 100 employees all around the world, producing and running open software, wherever possible. With Adblock Plus we want to contribute to a sustainable, fair and open web for creators and consumers. So it is only logical to provide our products as open source."

Adblock Plus joins a broad range of well-known technology and software companies that all started as open source projects and matured into open source businesses. Now they are contributing back to the broader open source community as OSI sponsors and supporters.

About Adblock Plus

Adblock Plus (https://adblockplus.org/) is an open source project that aims to rid the Internet of annoying and intrusive online advertising. Its free web browser extension (add-ons) puts users in control by letting them block or filter which ads they want to see. Users across the world have downloaded Adblock Plus over 1 billion times, and it has remained the most downloaded and the most used extension almost continuously since November 2006. PC Magazine named the extension as one of the best free Google Chrome extensions, and it received About.com readers' choice award for best privacy/security add-on. Adblock Plus is a free browser add-on for Safari, Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Maxthon and Opera for desktop users, and offers a free browser for mobile users on iOS and Android.

Follow Adblock Plus on Twitter at @AdblockPlus and read our blogs at adblockplus.org/blog/. Media press kit with FAQ, images and company statistics is available at: eyeo.com/en/press.

Adblock Plus Media Contact
Laura Dornheim
laura(a)adblockplus.org
+49 172 8903504
@schwarzblond

About The Open Source Initiative

Founded in 1998, the Open Source Initiative (OSI) protects and promotes open source software, development and communities, championing software freedom in society through education, collaboration, and infrastructure, stewarding the Open Source Definition, and preventing abuse of the ideals and ethos inherent to the open source movement. The OSI is a California public benefit corporation, with 501(c)(3) tax-exempt status. For more information about the OSI, see https://opensource.org.

Follow the OSI on Twitter at @opensourceorg, and read our blogs at opensource.org/news.

OSI Media Contact
Italo Vignoli
italo(a)opensource.org

Categories: FLOSS Research

Twenty Years and Counting

Open Source Initiative - Fri, 2017-12-22 09:14

The third decade of open source software starts in February 2018. How did it rise to dominance, and what’s next?

20 years ago, in February 1998, the term “open source” was first applied to software, Soon afterwards, the Open Source Definition was created and the seeds that became the Open Source Initiative (OSI) were sown. As the OSD’s author Bruce Perens relates,

'Open Source' is the proper name of a campaign to promote the pre-existing concept of Free Software to business, and to certify licenses to a rule set.

Twenty years later, that campaign has proven wildly successful, beyond the imagination of anyone involved at the time. Today open source software is literally everywhere. It is the foundation for the Internet and for the worldwide web. It powers the computers and mobile devices we all use, as well as the networks they connect to. Without it, cloud computing and the nascent Internet of Things would be impossible to scale and perhaps to create. It has allowed new ways of doing business to be tested and proven, allowing giant corporations like Google and Facebook to start from the top of a mountain others already climbed.

Like any human creation, it has a dark side as well. It has also unlocked dystopian possibilities for surveillance and the inevitably consequent authoritarian control. It has provided criminals with new ways to cheat their victims and unleashed the darkness of bullying delivered anonymously and at scale. It allows destructive fanatics to organise in secret without the inconvenience of meeting. All of these are shadows cast by useful capabilities, just as every human tool through history has been useful both to feed and care and to harm and control. We need to help the upcoming generation to strive for irreproachable innovation. As Richard Feynman quoted,

To every man is given the key to the gates of heaven. The same key opens the gates of hell.

As open source has matured, so the way it is discussed and understood has also matured. The first decade was one of advocacy and controversy, while the second was marked by adoption and adaptation.

  1. In the first decade, the key question concerned business models – “how can I contribute freely yet still be paid”, while during the second more people asked about governance – “how can I participate yet keep control/not be controlled”.
  2. Open source projects of the first decade were predominantly replacements for off-the-shelf products, while in the second decade they were increasingly components of larger solutions.
  3. Projects of the first decade were often run by informal groups of individuals, while in the second decade they were frequently run by charities created on a project-by-project basis.
  4. Open source developers of the first decade were frequently devoted to a single project and often worked in their spare time. In the second decade, they were increasingly employed to work on a specific technology – professional specialists.
  5. While open source was always intended as a way to promote software freedom, during the first decade conflict arose with those preferring the term “free software”. In the second decade this conflict was largely ignored as open source adoption accelerated.

So what will the third decade bring?

  1. The Complexity Business Model — The predominant business model will involve monetising the solution of the complexity arising from the integration of many open source parts, especially from deployment and scaling. Governance needs will reflect this.
  2. Open Source Mosaics — Open source projects will be predominantly families of component parts, together being built into stacks of components. The resultant larger solutions will be a mosaic of open source parts.
  3. Families Of Projects — More and more projects will be hosted by consortia/trade associations like the Linux Foundation and OpenStack and by general purpose charities like Apache and the Software Freedom Conservancy.
  4. Professional Generalists — Open source developers will increasingly be employed to integrate many technologies into complex solutions and will contribute in a range of projects.
  5. Software Freedom Redux — As new problems arise, software freedom (the application of the Four Freedoms to user and developer flexibility) will increasingly be applied to identify solutions that work for collaborative communities and independent deployers.

The OSI Board of Directors and many Board Alumni will be expounding on all this in conference keynotes around the world during 2018. Watch out for OSI’s 20th Anniversary World Tour!

This article was originally published in Meshed Insights, and was made possible by Patreon patrons.

Image credit: "NextDecade.png" is a derivative of "woodland-road-falling-leaf-natural-38537.jpeg", via Pixabay, and used with permission under Creative Commons Zero (CC0) license.

Categories: FLOSS Research

Twenty Years and Counting

Open Source Initiative - Fri, 2017-12-22 09:13

The third decade of open source software starts in February 2018. How did it rise to dominance, and what’s next?

20 years ago, in February 1998, the term “open source” was first applied to software, Soon afterwards, the Open Source Definition was created and the seeds that became the Open Source Initiative (OSI) were sown. As the OSD’s author Bruce Perens relates,

“Open Source” is the proper name of a campaign to promote the pre-existing concept of Free Software to business, and to certify licenses to a rule set.

Twenty years later, that campaign has proven wildly successful, beyond the imagination of anyone involved at the time. Today open source software is literally everywhere. It is the foundation for the Internet and for the worldwide web. It powers the computers and mobile devices we all use, as well as the networks they connect to. Without it, cloud computing and the nascent Internet of Things would be impossible to scale and perhaps to create. It has allowed new ways of doing business to be tested and proven, allowing giant corporations like Google and Facebook to start from the top of a mountain others already climbed.

Like any human creation, it has a dark side as well. It has also unlocked dystopian possibilities for surveillance and the inevitably consequent authoritarian control. It has provided criminals with new ways to cheat their victims and unleashed the darkness of bullying delivered anonymously and at scale. It allows destructive fanatics to organise in secret without the inconvenience of meeting. All of these are shadows cast by useful capabilities, just as every human tool through history has been useful both to feed and care and to harm and control. We need to help the upcoming generation to strive for irreproachable innovation. As Richard Feynman quoted,

To every man is given the key to the gates of heaven. The same key opens the gates of hell.

As open source has matured, so the way it is discussed and understood has also matured. The first decade was one of advocacy and controversy, while the second was marked by adoption and adaptation.

  1. In the first decade, the key question concerned business models – “how can I contribute freely yet still be paid”, while during the second more people asked about governance – “how can I participate yet keep control/not be controlled”.
  2. Open source projects of the first decade were predominantly replacements for off-the-shelf products, while in the second decade they were increasingly components of larger solutions
  3. .
  4. Projects of the first decade were often run by informal groups of individuals, while in the second decade they were frequently run by charities created on a project-by-project basis.
  5. Open source developers of the first decade were frequently devoted to a single project and often worked in their spare time. In the second decade, they were increasingly employed to work on a specific technology – professional specialists.
  6. While open source was always intended as a way to promote software freedom, during the first decade conflict arose with those preferring the term “free software”. In the second decade this conflict was largely ignored as open source adoption accelerated.
  7. So what will the third decade bring?

    1. The Complexity Business Model — The predominant business model will involve monetising the solution of the complexity arising from the integration of many open source parts, especially from deployment and scaling. Governance needs will reflect this.
    2. Open Source Mosaics — Open source projects will be predominantly families of component parts, together being built into stacks of components. The resultant larger solutions will be a mosaic of open source parts.
    3. Families Of Projects — More and more projects will be hosted by consortia/trade associations like the Linux Foundation and OpenStack and by general purpose charities like Apache and the Software Freedom Conservancy.
    4. Professional Generalists — Open source developers will increasingly be employed to integrate many technologies into complex solutions and will contribute in a range of projects.
    5. Software Freedom Redux — As new problems arise, software freedom (the application of the Four Freedoms to user and developer flexibility) will increasingly be applied to identify solutions that work for collaborative communities and independent deployers.
    6. I’ll be expounding on all this in conference keynotes around the world during 2018. Watch out for OSI’s 20th Anniversary World Tour!

      This article was originally published in Meshed Insights, and was made possible by Patreon patrons.

      Image credit: "NextDecade.png" is a derivative of "woodland-road-falling-leaf-natural-38537.jpeg", via Pixabay, and used with permission under Creative Commons Zero (CC0) license.

Categories: FLOSS Research

New OSS Watch videos!

OSS Watch team blog - Mon, 2017-11-27 14:07

As part of a project on Open Innovation at the University of Edinburgh, Scott Wilson from OSS Watch took part in a series of videos on software in open innovation, particularly open source.

All the videos are licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA, so feel free to use them in your courses and training materials.

The videos can be viewed and downloaded from the University of Edinburgh Media Hopper.

Categories: FLOSS Research

Open Yet Closed

Open Source Initiative - Tue, 2017-11-14 11:12

In these days of code that no single mind can grasp, it's hard to see how software freedom is present when there's no realistic community access to source code.

In the early days of Free Software, it was a safe assumption that anyone using a computer had coding skills of some sort -- even if only for shell scripts. As a consequence, many advocates of Free Software, despite a strong focus on user freedoms, had a high tolerance for software that made source available under free terms without providing binaries.

That was considered undesirable, but as long as the source code could be used it was not disqualifying. Many other ways evolved to ensure that the software was somehow impractical to deploy without a commercial relationship with a particular vendor, even if the letter of the rules around Free Software was met.

This tolerance for "open but closed" models continued into the new Open Source movement. As long as code was being liberated under open source licenses, many felt the greater good was being served despite obstacles erected in service of business models.

But times have changed. Random code liberation is still desirable, but the source of the greatest value to the greatest number is the collaboration and collective innovation open source unlocks. While abstract "open" was tolerated in the 20th century, only "open for collaboration" satisfies the open source communities of the 21st century. Be it "open core", "scareware", "delayed open", "source only for clients", "patent royalties required" or one of the many other games entrepreneurs play, meeting the letter of the OSD or FSD without actually allowing collaboration is now deprecated.

As a consequence, OSI receives more complaints from community members about "open yet closed" than any other topic. Companies of all sizes who loudly tout their love for open source yet withhold source code from non-customers generate the most enquiries of this type. When approached, OSI contacts these companies on behalf of the community but the response is always that they are "within their rights" under the relevant open source licenses and can do what they please.

One claim that deserves to be soundly debunked is that it's OK to withhold open source code from non-customers. All open source licenses should be interpreted as requiring source to be made available to the public. OSD 2 is very clear:

2. The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost, preferably downloading via the Internet without charge. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed. Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or translator are not allowed.M/small>

Interestingly it's common that the companies involved obtained the source code they are monetising under an open source license, while they themselves own the copyrights to a tiny percentage of the code. They can be considered to have enclosed the commons, enjoying the full benefits of open source themselves -- and celebrating it -- but excluding others from collaboration on the same terms.

Many community members would tolerate this were it not for the company claims to be strong supporters of open source. Even this behaviour might be mitigated for some with upstream code contributions. But in the absence of public code, most community members dispute something is open source, regardless of the license used. "Open yet closed" may have been tolerated twenty years ago, but today the rule is open up or shut up.

Image credit: "OpenClosedPost.png" is a derivative of "Paris - A Bicycle against an old wall - 4292.jpg", 2008 by Jorge Royan (Own work) via Wikimedia Commons and used with permission under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Categories: FLOSS Research

Open Source Initiative Announces DigitalOcean Corporate Sponsorship

Open Source Initiative - Tue, 2017-11-07 20:45

Cloud services platform will provide both financial and in-kind contributions to support OSI infrastructure and new collaboration platform.

PALO ALTO, Calif. - Nov. 8, 2017 -- The Open Source Initiative® (OSI), dedicated to increasing the awareness and adoption of open source software, is delighted to welcome DigitalOcean as a Premium Sponsor. DigitalOcean, a cloud services platform designed for developers, will provide both financial support and hosting for several OSI community-driven services.

A Forbes' Cloud 100 company, DigitalOcean's active engagement and investment in open source software highlights how today's most innovative and successful companies have recognized the value of, and opportunities within, open communities of collaboration. The company regularly sponsors open source related MeetUps and Hackathons—including their popular "Hacktoberfest", develops tutorials on open source technologies and techniques, maintains and contributes to a number of open source projects, and of course offers hosting to open source projects and foundations.

"DigitalOcean's support provides a critical boost to the OSI's ongoing operations, and for the new, community-focused programs we'll be launching in 2018," says Patrick Masson, General Manager at OSI. "With the growth in open source software across all sectors, the OSI is seeing more and more requests for assistance and resources. DigitalOcean's services will provide the OSI with the dedicated infrastructure we need now to successfully extend and expand our support for the new and growing roles emerging in open source communities of practice."

"One of our core company values is, our community is bigger than just us," says Greg Warden, VP, Engineering at DigitalOcean. "From our KVM-based hypervisors to our Go and Ruby applications running on our Kubernetes clusters, DigitalOcean is built on a foundation of open source. That's why it is so important for us to support the Open Source Initiative in its work promoting and protecting open source on behalf of the community."

As a non-profit, community-driven organization, the OSI relies on the support of volunteers who lend their time to develop and manage internal operations and working groups; individual contributing members, whose annual dues provide critical support and votes elect the Board; Affiliate Members, composed of a who's who of open source projects and foundations, and; corporations who choose to support our mission through in-kind donations and generous financial contributions.

About DigitalOcean

DigitalOcean is a cloud services platform designed for developers that businesses use to run production applications at scale. It provides highly available, secure and scalable compute, storage and networking solutions that help developers build great software faster. Founded in 2012 with offices in New York and Cambridge, MA, DigitalOcean offers simple services, transparent pricing, an elegant user interface, and one of the largest libraries of open source resources available. For more information, please visit http://www.digitalocean.com or follow @digitalocean.

About The Open Source Initiative

Founded in 1998, the Open Source Initiative (OSI) protects and promotes open source software, development and communities, championing software freedom in society through education, collaboration, and infrastructure, stewarding the Open Source Definition, and preventing abuse of the ideals and ethos inherent to the open source movement. The OSI is a California public benefit corporation, with 501(c)(3) tax-exempt status.

Media Contact
Italo Vignoli
italo@opensource.org

Categories: FLOSS Research

Ensuring Openness Through and In Open Source Licensing

Open Source Initiative - Mon, 2017-10-30 17:25

It simply may not be clear to those encountering open source for the first time the scope of the Open Source Definition, or the standards expected by the international open source community, when OSI approved licenses are applied. We're here to help clear things up.

Some of the largest forces in business today—consumer-facing companies like Google and Facebook, business-facing companies like Salesforce and SUSE, companies outside the tech industry such as BMW, Capital One, and Zalando, even first-gen tech corporations like Microsoft and IBM—all increasingly depend on open source software. Governments too, including the European Union, France, India, the United Kingdom, the United States, and many others have discovered the benefits of open source software and development models. Successful collaborative development of software and infrastructure used by these organizations is enabled by the safe space created when they use their IP in a new ways... to ensure an environment for co-creation where the four essential freedoms of software are guaranteed.

Software distributed under an OSI Approved Open Source License offers much to businesses and governments: both as consumers and contributors. The software freedoms protected through open source licensing harnesses the power of distributed peer review and transparency of process driving economies through faster innovation, higher quality, better reliability, lower costs, and an end to vendor lock-in. The open source model also promotes increased security; because code in the public view will be exposed to extreme scrutiny, with problems found and fixed instead of kept secret until the wrong person discovers them. And last but not least, it's a way that the little guys can get together, innovate and have a good chance at beating an established participant. Participating in open source projects and communities can build open standards as actual software, rather than paper documents. It's a way for companies and individuals to collaborate around shared needs on a product that none alone could achieve or, in and of itself, does not constitute a key business differentiator.

Governments too recognize the value of open source as both a technology solution delivering value to the public they serve, as well as an approach for development returning tax-payer investments back to the society they represent.

A European Commission study of 2007 offered, “Open Source is key for ICT competitiveness”, yet, “Though FLOSS [Free/Libre Open Source Software] provides ample opportunities for Europe, it is threatened by increasing moves in some policy circles to support regulation that seeks to protect old business models of creative industries, making it harder to develop new ways of doing business.” [1]

The Open Source Initiative (OSI) has successfully addressed copyright licensing as a concrete expression of software freedom since its founding in 1998. But open source software licenses were always intended to go beyond copyright to deliver rights permission and rights protection for developers and users in multiple IP classes, both explicitly and implicitly. OSI has never approved a license that did not include robust rights to freely make, use and sell software, as required by the OSI’s key principles.

Open Source Includes Patents as well as Copyrights

An open source project and participating communities of practice have always expected that, if a project is “open source”, then they will receive all necessary rights associated with former and current participants to be licensed without further action. This expectation is guaranteed in the Open Source Definition (OSD), “The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties” [2].

The OSI has long explained that unrestricted licensing is essential to protect the software freedom inherent to open source software and the communities of practice that rely on unfettered use, modification and (re)distribution. The OSI has released multiple public comments, and recommended policy, on several issues that threaten open source software, including: open standards [3, 4], Digital Rights Management [5], FRAND [6], and software patents [7].

The OSI and the open source community have always treated patent licensing, as a precondition of implementation of a standard, as inherent in approved open source licenses, without any need for separate license grants. Even zero-fee licensing would be problematic, as it still might require (non-monetary) permissions from patent holders before the adoption and use of software, the antithesis of open source. Patent licensing is by definition bilateral—a one-off agreement between a licensor and licensee. Open source communities are by definition multi-lateral, where a single license affords concordance to all licensees. Any approach which includes separate patent licensing for specific users would undermine the multi-participant open source model, conflict with the OSD, and thus could never be interpreted as compliant with any OSI Approved Open Source License or the label “open source software”.

To be clear, of course, the decision to participate in an open source project is entirely voluntary. Companies may choose not to participate, and thus not to license their copyrights and patents. But if they participate in open source, then they must comply with these basic requirements for open source licensing.

Assertion of Patents Against Open Source Software Hinders Authentic Collaboration

Unrestricted collaboration, critical to authentic development in open source software communities, depends fundamentally on equality of participation and transparency of behavior. Organizations like Apache, OpenStack, Cloud Foundry and many others go to great lengths to ensure transparency and equality, and have rules that exclude the possibility of participation by those who attempt to breach either. Seen in the context of collaborative development and distribution, the assertion of a contributor’s patents against open source software is antithetical to open source approaches.

As a result, open source licensing terms prevent patent aggression and disadvantage those who attempt it. Far from being a sacrifice, this use of IP is arguably the dynamo of the technology industry, allowing startups and established corporations alike to rapidly climb upon the shoulders of earlier giants and deliver innovation. Web servers, smartphones, business automation, cloud computing and the sharing economy – to name just a few examples – all arise from the use of OSI Approved Open Source Licenses and would probably never have happened without it.

Open Source is a Defined Term

The OSI, as the steward of the OSD, is the community-recognized body for reviewing and approving licenses as OSD-conformant. The global software development and deployment community refers to software as “open source” when it is made available with source code under an OSI-approved IP license conveying the rights necessary to use, improve and share the software in a manner a given community considers appropriate. The OSD, and the OSI’s authority in certifying licenses, are internationally recognized by open source software projects (e.g. The Apache Foundation, The Linux Foundation, The Mozilla Foundation) [8] , corporations (e.g. Adobe, Dell/EMC, Facebook, Github, Google, HP, IBM, Microsoft) [9], and governments across the world [10].

There also are practical reasons why open source software needs to comply with the OSD and OSI’s approved licenses. Historically, where organizations have attempted to label some piece of software or another “open source” without applying an OSI-Approved Open Source License, the community consistently responds [11], confronting the offending organization [12, 13], emphasizing the consensus of the community [14], and demanding a resolution until alignment with community norms is again achieved [15]. In other words, it is not good business to falsely claim open source compliance.

All OSI-approved licenses share basic attributes defined in the OSD. In particular “mere use” is always permitted.

Approved Licenses, the OSI’s Process

A key goal of the OSI approval process is to allow those without access to corporate counsel to still participate confidently in open source collaborative development in service of their own use, improvement and sharing of the code. The OSI License Review Process ensures that licenses and software labeled as "open source" conforms to existing community norms and expectations. For that reason, all licenses must go through a public review process described below.

  • Ensure approved licenses conform to the Open Source Definition
  • Identify appropriate License Proliferation Category
  • Discourage vanity and duplicative Licenses
  • Ensure a thorough, transparent and timely review (e.g. within 60 days)

OSI’s “crystallisation of consensus” process for license review is overwhelmingly accepted in the community, serving as a nexus of trust and providing permission in advance for innovation. A license thus only becomes "approved" when open public review has reached consensus and the OSI Board has confirmed that consensus.

Individuals, corporations and SDOs may not assert or imply OSI Approved Open Source License status outside this process.

Ready to Help

OSI’s current and former Board has decades of experience in open source software projects and communities, the license approval process, and is aware of many modes of both success and failure related to licensing and community.

OSI is a donation-funded break-even 501(c)(3) with limited staff and a pro bono Board. OSI is nonetheless willing to correspond with any organization on open source matters, as well as help identify independent consultants.

To establish a corresponding relationship, please contact president@opensource.org

References
  1. Ghosh, Rishab Aiyer. The impact of Free/Libre/Open Source Software on innovation and competitiveness of the European Union, European Commission, 2007. Web. 25 October 2017. http://flossimpact.merit.unu.edu/
  2. OSI Board of Directors. The Open Source Definition. The Open Source Initiative, 1998. Web. 25 October 2017. https://opensource.org/osd
  3. OSI Board of Directors. Open Standards Requirement. The Open Source Initiative, 2006. Web. 25 October 2017. https://opensource.org/osr
  4. OSI Board of Directors. Open Standards Requirements for Software – Rationale. The Open Source Initiative, 2006. Web. 25 October 2017. https://opensource.org/osr-rationale
  5. OSI Board of Directors. Principles of DRM Nonaggression for Open Standards. The Open Source Initiative, 2016. Web. 25 October 2017. https://opensource.org/osr-drm
  6. OSI Board of Directors. FRAND and Open Standards. The Open Source Initiative, 2012. Web. 25 October 2017. https://opensource.org/node/616
  7. OSI Board of Directors. Search Results. The Open Source Initiative, 2017. Web. 25 October 2017. https://opensource.org/search/node/software%20patents
  8. OSI Board of Directors. List of OSI Affiliates. The Open Source Initiative, 2017. Web. 25 October 2017. https://opensource.org/affiliates/list
  9. OSI Board of Directors. OSI Corporate Sponsors & Support. The Open Source Initiative, 2017. Web. 25 October 2017. https://opensource.org/sponsors
  10. OSI Board of Directors. International Authority & Recognition. The Open Source Initiative, 2016. Web. 25 October 2017. https://opensource.org/authority#AustralianGov
  11. OSI Board of Directors. React to React. The Open Source Initiative, 2016. Web. 25 October 2017. https://opensource.org/node/862
  12. Mattmann, Chris A. RocksDB Integrations. The Apache Foundation, 2017. Web. 25 October 2017. https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/LEGAL-303?focusedCommentId=16088663
  13. Mullenweg, Matt. On React and WordPress. MA.TT, 2017. Web. 25 October 2017. https://ma.tt/2017/09/on-react-and-wordpress/
  14. Multiple. December 2016 Archives by thread. The Open Source Initiative, 2016. Web. 25 October 2017. https://lists.opensource.org/pipermail/license-discuss/2016-December/thread.html#19600
  15. Wolff, Adam. Relicensing React, Jest, Flow, and Immutable.js. Facebook Code, 2017. Web. 25 October 2017. https://code.facebook.com/posts/300798627056246/relicensing-react-jest-flow-and-immutable-js/

Image credit: "openBlur.png" is a derivative of "Yes We're Open.jpg", 2017 by Pernillan (Own work) via Wikimedia Commons and used permission under CC BY-SA 4.0.

Categories: FLOSS Research

Open Source Initiative, and Open Source Software Movement Celebrate Twenty Years

Open Source Initiative - Mon, 2017-10-23 13:42

The Open Source Initiative will celebrate its 20th Anniversary in 2018. In the true open source spirit, the organization will invite everyone in the open source community to participate.

Raleigh, NC Oct. 23, 2018 — All Things Open Conference — The Open Source Initiative® (OSI), the global non-profit dedicated to raising awareness and adoption of open source software, announced today plans for the “Open Source 20th Anniversary World Tour” to run through 2018.

Open source software is now ubiquitous, recognized across industries as a fundamental component to infrastructure, as well as a critical factor for driving innovation. Over the past twenty years, the OSI has worked to promote and protect open source software, development, and communities, championing software freedom in society through education, collaboration, and infrastructure, stewarding the Open Source Definition (OSD), and preventing abuse of the ideals and ethos inherent to the open source movement.

The “open source” label was created at a strategy session held on February 3rd, 1998 in Mountain View, California. That same month, now almost twenty years ago, the OSI was founded as a general educational and advocacy organization to raise awareness and adoption for the superiority of an open development process.

To recognize this point in our shared history, the remarkable success of the open source software movement, and the inspiring fellowship of developers, maintainers, businesses and communities engaged in collaborative efforts across so many technology sectors, supporting just about every company and community, the OSI, in partnership with its affiliate members and sponsors, is organizing a global celebration to take place at a variety of open source venues worldwide throughout 2018. “The OSI's twenty year anniversary is a celebration of the open source software movement itself. We hope everyone who has helped to make open source software so successful will join us in celebrating code and communities,” said Patrick Masson, General Manager at the Open Source Initiative.

As of today, the OSI has confirmed 2018 anniversary celebrations in conjunction with the leading open source conferences, as well as standalone community-led events, these include: All Things Open, Campus Party Brasil, China Open Source Conference, FOSDEM, FOSSASIA Summit, Linux.conf.au, LinuxFest Northwest, Open Apereo, Open Camps, OpenExpo, OpenTechSummit China, OSCON, Paris Open Source Summit, and SCALE16x. In addition to official events, the OSI is also supporting volunteer organizers in hosting local, community-led celebrations in their own cities.

“Openness and sharing of knowledge is enabling our community in Asia to learn about new technologies every day, “ said Hong Phuc Dang, FOSSASIA Founder. “It is amazing what opportunities open source is providing to so many people. We are excited to be connected with contributors around the globe and to celebrate the achievements of Open Source in the 20th Anniversary World Tour in Singapore and China.”

Pierre Baudracco, CEO of BlueMind, president of the Paris Open Source Summit committee program added, “We are very pleased to be the first European official milestone as part of OSI’s 20th Anniversary World Tour. Paris Open Source Summit, as a major global event of the Free and Open Source sector in Europe, addressing communities, markets, societies, research, politics and more, is just a perfect meeting place to celebrate 20 years of open source, worldwide openness and collaborative contributions.”

About The Open Source Initiative
The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is a non-profit corporation with global scope formed to educate about and advocate for the benefits of open source and to build bridges among different constituencies in the open source community. One of the most important activities for the organization is as a standards body, maintaining the Open Source Definition for the good of the community. The Open Source Initiative Approved License trademark and program creates a nexus of trust around which developers, users, corporations and governments can organize open source cooperation. For more information about the OSI, see https://opensource.org.

Contact
Italo Vignoli
Chair, OSI Communications Committee
italo@opensource.org

Categories: FLOSS Research

Open Source Initiative Welcomes Cumulus Networks As Premium Sponsor

Open Source Initiative - Wed, 2017-10-18 17:15

Cumulus Networks' contributions support open source projects, developer communities, and now as an OSI Premium Sponsor, advocacy.

The Open Source Initiative® (OSI), the internationally recognized home of the open source software movement working to raise awareness and adoption of open source software, announced today the generous sponsorship of Cumulus Networks. Cumulus joins OSI's growing community of corporations that recognize the importance of not only investing in open source software projects and development, but also building a diverse ecosystem that promotes collaboration, enables innovation, and ensures quality.

Cumulus Networks has a strong tradition of internally-driven development of original open source software, including most notably, contributions to the Linux kernel that complete the data center feature set for Linux such as Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF), MPLS, MLAG infrastructure, multicast routing features, etc. Cumulus' most recent open source effort is FRRouting, co-developed by a group of contributing companies in the open networking space, to enhance routing protocols. Cumulus Networks has also been a key driving member of the Open Network Install Environment (ONIE) with contributions to the Open Compute Project, Prescriptive Topology Manager--which simplifies the deployment of large L3 networks--and ifupdown2, a rewrite of Debian's tool for configuring networks that greatly simplifies large, complicated networking configurations.

In addition to technical and code contributions, Cumulus has also invested in the development of educational and training programs to help open source developers and users become active contributors with a wide range of freely available resources. "We're very excited by Cumulus' sponsorship," said Patrick Masson, General Manager of the OSI. "Of course we're very grateful for their generous financial support, but also, as part of the sponsorship, we'll also be working with the Cumulus team to create and distribute professional development and training resources that will help the entire open source community learn new technologies, develop skills and more deeply engage with projects."

"Open source is one Cumulus Networks' core principles, and we have a strong background at the company of both developing original open source software and contributing to projects," said Shrijeet Mukherjee, VP of Engineering of Cumulus Networks. "We're thrilled to sponsor The Open Source Initiative and contribute to an organization that is so positively impacting the community by raising awareness and adoption of open source."

Contributions like those from Cumulus, allow the OSI to maintain its internationally recognized status as a nexus of trust with a mandate to protect and promote open source. The OSI engages with open source developers, communities of practice, as well as the public and private sectors around the world, furthering open source technologies, licenses, and models of development that can provide economic and strategic advantages.

About Cumulus Networks
Cumulus Networks (https://www.cumulusnetworks.com) is leading the transformation of bringing web-scale networking to enterprise cloud. As the only systems solution that fully unlocks the vertical network stacks of the modern data center, Cumulus Linux allows companies of all sizes to affordably build and efficiently operate their networks just like the world's largest data centers. By allowing operators to use standard hardware components, Cumulus Networks offers unprecedented operational speed and agility, at the industry's most competitive cost. Cumulus Networks has received venture funding from Andreessen Horowitz, Battery Ventures, Sequoia Capital, Peter Wagner and four of the original VMware founders.

About The Open Source Initiative
Founded in 1998, the Open Source Initiative (OSI) protects and promotes open source software, development and communities, championing software freedom in society through education, collaboration, and infrastructure, stewarding the Open Source Definition, and preventing abuse of the ideals and ethos inherent to the open source movement. The OSI is a California public benefit corporation, with 501(c)(3) tax-exempt status. For more information about OSI sponsorship, see https://opensource.org/sponsors.

Categories: FLOSS Research

The Faces of Open Source: Mike Dolan

Open Source Initiative - Wed, 2017-10-04 07:44

We're pleased to present the eighth, but sadly, final episode of Shane Martin Coughlan's, "The Faces of Open Source Law", featuring Mike Dolan. We'd like to thank Shane for his great work in introducing the issues related to open source software and communities, as well as the people so deeply involved and committed to helping the movement succeed.

It was the end of the conference, we had seven interviews completed, and the staff was packing up all around. Mike and I got together during the goodbyes between everyone and he mentioned he had a little free time. Instead of closing the season with a typical interview we decided to go a little light-hearted. We grabbed some potted plants from around the main conference room, pushed a few chairs together, and created a genuine knock-off of Between Two Ferns.

Mike commented that our setup was just as ramshackle as the actual show. Despite this we recorded one of the longer and most content-filled interviews of the season, providing a perfect end point to an experiment in connecting personalities to well-known names in the open source legal sphere.

Other episodes:

"Mike Dolan - The Faces of Open Source Law - Season 1 - Episode 8" is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution license. "The Faces of Open Source Law" was shot during breaks at the FSFE Legal Network 'Legal and Licensing Workshop' in Barcelona during April 2017. Thanks to everyone who made it happen!

Categories: FLOSS Research

Transitions in Leadership

Open Source Initiative - Thu, 2017-09-28 12:25

Serving as president of the Open Source Initiative over the past few years has been a joy and an honor, and if I write a memoir someday I'm sure these will stand out as some of the best and brightest years in a long and happy open source career. It has been a delight to collaborate closely with so many people I admire greatly, including Deb Bryant, Molly de Blanc, Richard Fontana, Leslie Hawthorn, Mike Milinkovich, Simon Phipps, Josh Simmons, Carol Smith, Paul Tagliamonte, Italo Vignoli, and Stefano Zacchiroli.

I'm incredibly proud of what the organization has accomplished in that time, continuing stewardship of the open source license list, and growing our individual membership and affiliate programs which provide a path for the entire open source community to have a say in the governance of the OSI.

All good things must come to an end, and the time has come for me to pass along the president's hat to the next volunteer. My work life has grown busier and busier in recent months, and I'm starting a PhD soon, so the time I have available to contribute to the OSI has become incredibly fractured. I'd rather empower someone else to do a great job as president than do a mediocre job of it myself for the rest of the year.

It gives me great pleasure to share the news that the OSI board has elected Simon Phipps as the next president. Having Simon at the helm will help make the transition particularly easy, since he served as OSI president before me. I've known Simon for many years, long before either of us was involved in the OSI, and one thing that has always impressed me is the way he consistently engages with new ideas, championing the relevance of open source in the ever-changing modern world. He also gave the best talk that I've ever seen explaining the four software freedoms and advocating for software freedom (at a conference in Oslo in 2011).

I'll remain as a member of the OSI board, both to support a smooth transition to the new president, and to continue involvement in several active projects at the OSI. My hope is that handing off the administrative responsibility to Simon will enable me to focus my limited volunteer time on other things like improving the license review process.

I'll close with an invitation: if you have a passion for open source and/or free software, consider running for the OSI board in one of our annual elections. Any individual member of the OSI can self-nominate as a candidate for the board (voted by the body of individual members), and active affiliate organizations of the OSI can nominate anyone as a candidate (voted by the body of affiliate organizations). Director terms are only 2-3 years, so serving on the board isn't an overwhelming commitment, and is a great way to contribute your skills and experience to the open source and free software community. Who knows, maybe you'll be the next president of the OSI after Simon.

Categories: FLOSS Research

Bicho 0.9 is comming soon!

LibreSoft Planet - Thu, 2011-06-09 09:06

During last months we’ve been working to improve Bicho, one of our data mining tools. Bicho gets information from remote bug/issue tracking systems and store them in a relational database.

Bicho

 

The next release of Bicho 0.9 will also include incremental support, which is something we’ve missed for flossmetrics and for standalone studies with a huge amount of bugs. We also expect that more backends will be created easily with the improved backend model created by Santi Dueñas. So far we support JIRA, Bugzilla and Sourceforge. For the first two ones we parse HTML + XML, for sourceforge all we have is HTML so we are more dependent from the layout (to minimize that problem we use BeautifulSoup). We plan to include at least backends for FusionForge and Mantis (which is partially written) during this year.

Bicho is being used currently in the ALERT project (still in the first months) where all the information offered by the bug/issue reports will be related to the information available in the source code repositories (using CVSAnaly) through semantic analysis. That relationship will allow us to help developers through recommendations and other more pro-active use cases. One of my favorites is to recommend a developer to fix a bug through the analysis of the stacktraces posted in a bug. In libre software projects all the information is available in the internet, the main problem (not a trival one) is that it is available in very different resources. Using bicho against the bts/its we can get the part of the code (function name, class and file) that probably contains the error and the version of the application. That information can be related to the one got from the source code repository with cvsanaly, in this case we would need to find out who is the developer that edit that part of the code more often. This and other uses cases are being defined in the ALERT project.

If you want to stay tunned to Bicho have a look at the project page at http://projects.libresoft.es/projects/bicho/wiki or the mailing list libresoft-tools-devel _at__ lists.morfeo-project.org

 

Categories: FLOSS Research

ARviewer, PhoneGap and Android

LibreSoft Planet - Thu, 2011-06-09 04:44
ARviewer is a FLOSS mobile augmented reality browser and editor that you can easily integrate in your own Android applications. This version has been developed using PhoneGap Framework. The browser part of ARviewer draws the label associated with an object of the reality using as parameters both its A-GPS position and its altitude. The system works both outdoors and indoors in this latest case with location provided by QR-codes. ARviewer labels can be shown through a traditional list based view or through an AR view a magic lens mobile augmented reality UI.    The next steps are: 
  • Testing this source code in IOS platform to check the real portability that phoneGap provide us.
  • We plan to add the “tagging mode” with phoneGap to allow tag new nodes/objetcs from the mobile. 
  Are very very similar the next images, right? We only have found a critical problem with the refresh of nodes in the WebView using PhoneGap. We will study and analyze this behavior.  

ARviewer PhoneGap

 

ARviewer Android (native)

  More info: http://www.libregeosocial.org/node/24  Source Code: http://git.libresoft.es/ARviewer-phoneGap/  Android Market: http://market.android.com/details?id=com.libresoft.arviewer.phonegap
Categories: FLOSS Research

Finding code clones between two libre software projects

LibreSoft Planet - Thu, 2011-05-12 08:05

Last month I’ve been working in the creation of a report with the aim of finding out code clones between two libre software projects. The method we used was basically the one that was detailed in the paper Code siblings: Technical and Legal Implications by German, D., Di Penta M., Gueheneuc Y. and Antoniol, G.

It is an interesting case and I’m pretty sure this kind of reports will be more and more interesting for entities that publish code using a libre software license. Imagine you are part of a big libre software project and your copyright and even money is there, it would be very useful to you knowing whether a project is using your code and respecting your copyright and the rights you gave to the users with the license. With the aim of identifying these scenarios we did in our study the following:

  • extraction of clones with CCFinderX
  • detection of license with Ninka
  • detection of the copyright with shell scripts

The CCFinderX tool used in the first phase gives you information about common parts of the code, it detects a common set of tokens (by default it is 50) between two files, this parameter should be changed depending on what it is being looked for. In the following example the second and third column contain information about the file and the common code. The syntax is (id of the file).(source file tokens) so the example shows that the file with id 1974 contains common code with files with id 11, 13 and 14.

...
clone_pairs {
19108 11.85-139 1974.70-124
19108 13.156-210 1974.70-124
19108 14.260-314 1974.70-124
12065 17.1239-1306 2033.118-185
12065 17.1239-1306 2033.185-252
12065 17.1239-1306 2033.252-319
12065 17.1239-1306 2141.319-386
...

In the report we did we only wanted to estimate the percent of code used from the “original” project in the derivative work, but there are some variables that are necessary to take into account. First, code clones can appear among the files of the same project (btw this is clear sign of needing refactorization). Second, different parts of a file can have clones in different files (a 1:n relationship) in both projects. The ideal solution would be to study file by file the relationship with others and to remove the repeated ones.

Once the relationship among files is created is the turn of the license and copyright detection. In this phase the method just compares the output of the two detectors and finally you get a matrix where it is possible to detect whether the copyright holders were respected and the license was correctly used.

Daniel German’s team found interesting things in their study of the FreeBSD and Linux kernels. They found GPL code in FreeBSD in the xfs file system. The trick to distribute this code under a BSD license is to distribute it disabled (is not compiled into FreeBSD) and let the user the election of compiling it or not. If a developer compiles the kernel with xfs support, the resulting kernel must be distributed under the terms of the GPLx licence.

Categories: FLOSS Research

OpenBSD 4.9 incorpora el sistema /etc/rc.d

LibreSoft Planet - Wed, 2011-05-04 16:23
Algo de historia  

Como cualquier administrador de sistemas Unix sabe, init es el primer proceso en ejecución tras la carga del kernel, y da inicio a los demonios ("servicios") estándar del sistema. En el Unix original de Bell Labs, el proceso init arrancaba los servicios de userland mediante un único script de shell denominado /etc/rc. La Distribución de Berkeley añadió años después otro script denominado /etc/rc.local para arrancar otros servicios. 

Esto funcionó así durante años, hasta que Unix se fue fragmentando y, con la aparición del software empaquetado de terceros, la versión System V del Unix de AT&T introdujo un nuevo esquema de directorios en /etc/rc.d/ que contenía scripts de arranque/parada de servicios, ordenados por orden de arranque, con una letra-clave delante del nombre de fichero (S- arrancar servicios y K- detener el servicio). Por ejemplo: S19mysql inicia [S] el servicio mysql. Estos scripts (situados en /etc/init.d) se distribuyeron en niveles de ejecución (runlevels, descritos en /etc/inittab), asociando los scripts con enlaces simbólicos en cada nivel de ejecución (/etc/rc0.d, rc1.d, rc2.d, etc.). Los niveles de ejecución en cada directorio representan la parada, el reinicio, arranque en monousuario o multiusuario, etc. Este esquema, conocido como "System V" (o "SysV"), es, por ejemplo, el que adoptaron las distribuciones de Linux (con algunas diferencias entre ellas en cuanto a la ubicación de subdirectorios y scripts). Tenía la ventaja de evitar el peligro de que cualquier error de sintaxis introducido por un paquete pudiera abortar la ejecución del único script y por tanto dejar el sistema en un estado inconsistente. A cambio, introdujo cierto grado de complejidad en la gestión y mantenimiento de scripts de inicio, directorios, enlaces simbólicos, etc. 

Otros sistemas de tipo Unix, como los BSD, mantuvieron el esquema tradicional y simple de Unix, con solo uno o dos únicos ficheros rc y sin niveles de ejecución[*], si bien fueron incorporando algunos otros aspectos del esquema SysV de inicialización de los servicios del sistema. Por ejemplo, NetBSD incluyó un sistema de inicio System V similar al de Linux, con scripts individuales para controlar servicios, pero sin runlevels. FreeBSD, a su vez, integró en 2002 el sistema rc.d de NetBSD y actualmente cuenta con decenas de demonios de inicio que funcionan de forma análoga a SysV: 

$ /etc/rc.d/sshd restart

 

OpenBSD incorpora /etc/rc.d

 

OpenBSD, sin embargo, no había adoptado hasta ahora el subsistema de scripts individuales para controlar los servicios, lo que a veces causaba cierto pánico, como si les faltase algo esencial, a quienes desde el mundo Linux (u otros Unices)

entraban por primera vez en contacto con este sistema (aunque luego la cosa tampoco era tan grave, es cuestión de hábitos). La actual versión OpenBSD 4.8, publicada en noviembre de 2010, todavía utiliza únicamente dos scripts de inicio (/etc/rc y /etc/rc.local). En OpenBSD 4.9, que se publicará el próximo 1 de mayo, se ha implementado por primera vez esta funcionalidad mediante el directorio /etc/rc.d

Como suele ser habitual en OpenBSD, no se implementa algo hasta que se está seguro que se gana algo y que hay un modo sencillo y fiable de utilizarlo para el usuario final. El mecanismo es análogo al de otros sistemas de tipo Unix, pero más sencillo y con algunas sutiles e importantes diferencias que vale la pena conocer. Veámoslo. 


Descripción del nuevo subsistema /etc/rc.d de OpenBSD  

En /etc/rc.conf (donde se incluye las variables de configuración para el script rc)  nos encontraremos una nueva variable denominada rc_scripts: 

# rc.d(8) daemons scripts # started in the specified order and stopped in reverse order rc_scripts=

Incluimos en esa variable (o mejor, como se recomienda siempre, en /etc/rc.conf.local, un fichero opcional que sobreescribe las variables de /etc/rc.conf) los demonios que deseamos arrancar de inicio, por orden de arranque:

rc_scripts="dbus_daemon mysql apache2 freshclam clamd cupsd"

Los scripts de inicio de servicios residirán, como suele ser habitual, en el directorio /etc/rc.d. Pero una diferencia clave es que, aunque los scripts estén ahí situados, no arrancará nada automáticamente que no esté listado en la variable rc_scripts, siguiendo el principio de OpenBSD de evitar presumir automatismos predeterminados. Cada script responderá a las siguientes acciones:

  • start    Arranca el servicio si no está ya corriendo.
  • stop     Detiene el servicio.
  • reload   Ordena al demonio que recargue su configuración.
  • restart  Ejecuta una parada del demonio (stop), y a continuación lo inicia (start).
  • check    Devuelve 0 si el demonio está corriendo o 1 en caso contrario. 

Actualmente, este sistema solo se usa para demonios instalados desde paquetes, no para el sistema base de OpenBSD. Por ejemplo, para gestionar los estados del servicio "foobar", que habremos antes instalado desde ports o paquetes, basta ejecutar:

/etc/rc.d/foobar reload /etc/rc.d/foobar restart /etc/rc.d/foobar check /etc/rc.d/foobar stop

La última orden ("stop") se invoca también en un reinicio (reboot) o parada (shutdown) desde /etc/rc.shutdown, en orden inverso al que aparece en la variable en rc_scripts, antes de que se ejecute la orden "stop/reboot" para todo el sistema. No es necesario preocuparse por el orden de ejecución o por el significado de S17 al comienzo del nombre de los scripts.

Otra ventaja de esta implementación es lo extraordinariamente sencillos que es escribir esos scripts, frente a otras implementaciones que precisan scripts de decenas o incluso cientos de líneas. En su forma más simple:

daemon="/usr/local/sbin/foobard" . /etc/rc.d/rc.subr rc_cmd $1

Un ejemplo algo más complejo:

#!/bin/sh # # $OpenBSD: specialtopics.html,v 1.15 2011/03/21 21:37:38 ajacoutot Exp $ daemon="${TRUEPREFIX}/sbin/munin-node" . /etc/rc.d/rc.subr pexp="perl: ${daemon}" rc_pre() { install -d -o _munin /var/run/munin } rc_cmd $1

Como puede observarse, el script típico solo necesita definir el demonio, incluir /etc/rc.d/rc.subr y opcionalmente definir una expresión regular diferente a la predeterminada para pasársela a pkill(1) y pueda encontrar el proceso deseado (la expresión por defecto es "${daemon} ${daemon_flags}").

El nuevo script debe colocarse en ${PKGDIR} con extensión .rc, por ejemplo foobard.rc. TRUEPREFIX se sustituirá automáticamente en el momento de instalarlo.

La sencillez y limpieza es posible gracias al subsistema rc.subr(8), un script que contiene las rutinas internas y la lógica más compleja para controlar los demonios. Así y todo, es muy legible y contiene menos de 100 líneas. Existe también una plantilla para los desarrolladores de paquetes y ports que se distribuye en "/usr/ports/infrastructure/templates/rc.template".

Y eso es todo. Cualquier "port" o paquete que necesite instalar un demonio puede beneficiarse ahora de los scripts rc.d(8). Quizá el nuevo sistema no cubra todos los supuestos, pero cubre las necesidades de los desarrolladores de ports para mantener un sistema estándar y sencillo para arrancar servicios). En marzo de 2011, ya hay más de 90 ports de los más usados que los han implementado. Por supuesto, el viejo sistema sigue funcionando en paquetes no convertidos, pero es indudable que los desarrolladores de OpenBSD (especial mención para Antoine Jacuotot (jacuotot@) y Robert Nagy (robert@)) han logrado una vez más un buen balance entre simplicidad y funcionalidad. Por supuesto, para ampliar detalles, nunca debe eludirse leer las páginas correspondientes del manual: rc.subr(8), rc.d(8), rc.conf(8) y rc.conf.local(8) y la documentación web


Referencias


(*) Que BSD no implemente "/etc/inittab" o "telinit" no significa que no tenga niveles de ejecución (runlevels), simplemente es capaz de cambiar sus estados de inicio mediante otros procedimientos, sin necesidad de "/etc/inittab".

 
Categories: FLOSS Research

Brief study of the Android community

LibreSoft Planet - Mon, 2011-04-18 11:19

Libre software is changing the way applications are built by companies, while the traditional software development model does not pay attention to external contributions, libre software products developed by companies benefit from them. These external contributions are promoted creating communities around the project and will help the company to create a superior product with a lower cost than possible for traditional competitors. The company in exchange offers the product free to use under a libre software license.

Android is one of these products, it was created by Google a couple of years ago and it follows a single vendor strategy. As Dirk Riehle introduced some time ago it is a kind of a economic paradox that a company can earn money making its product available for free as open source. But companies are not NGOs, they don't give away money without expecting something in return, so where is the trick?

As a libre software project Android did not start from scratch, it uses software that would be unavailable for non-libre projects. Besides that, it has a community of external stakeholders that improve and test the latest version published, help to create new features and fix errors. It is true that Android is not a project driven by a community but driven by a single vendor, and Google does it in a very restricted way. For instance external developers have to sign a Grant of Copyright License and they do not even have a roadmap, Google publish the code after every release so there are big intervals of time where external developers do not have access to the latest code. Even with these barriers there are a significant part of the code that is being provided from external people, it is done directly for the project or reused from common dependencies (GIT provides ways to reuse changes done to remote repositories).


The figures above reflect the monthly number of commits done by people split up in two, in green colour commits from mail domains google.com or android.com, the study assumes that these persons are Google employees. On the other hand in grey colour the rest of commits done by other mail domains, these ones belong to different companies or volunteers.

According to the first figure (on the left), which shows the proportion of commits, during the first months that were very active (March and April 2009) the number of commits from external contributors was similar to the commits done by Google staff. The number of external commits is also big in October 2009, when the total amount of commits reached its maximum. Since April 2009 the monthly activity of the external contributors seems to be between 10% and 15%.

The figure on the left provides a interesting view of the total activity per month, two very interesting facts here: the highest peak of development was reached during late 2009 (more than 8K commits per month during two months). The second is the activity during the last months, as it was mentioned before the Google staff work in private repositories so until they publish the next version of Android, we won't see another peak of development (take into account that commits in GIT will modify the history when the code is published, thus the last months in the timeline will be overwritten during the next release)


More than 10% of the commits used by Google in Android were committed using mail domains different to google.com or android.com. At this point the question is: who did it?

(Since October 2008) # Commits Domain 69297 google.com 22786 android.com 8815 (NULL) 1000 gmail.com 762 nokia.com 576 motorola.com 485 myriadgroup.com 470 sekiwake.mtv.corp.google.com 422 holtmann.org 335 src.gnome.org 298 openbossa.org 243 sonyericsson.com 152 intel.com



Having a look at the name of the domains, it is very surprising that Nokia is one of the most active contributors. This is a real paradox, the company that states that Android is its main competition helps it!. One of the effects of using libre software licenses for your work is that even your competition can use your code, currently there are Nokia commits in the following repositories:

  • git://android.git.kernel.org/platform/external/dbus
  • git://android.git.kernel.org/platform/external/bluetooth/bluez


This study is a ongoing process that should become a scientific paper, if you have feedback please let us know.



CVSAnalY was used to get data from 171 GIT repositories (the Linux kernel was not included). Our tool allow us to store the metadata of all the repositories in one SQL database, which helped a lot. The study assumes that people working for Google use a domain @google.com or @android.com.

 

References:

Categories: FLOSS Research

AR interface in Android using phoneGap

LibreSoft Planet - Tue, 2011-03-29 05:51

Since 6 months ago we have evaluated the possibility to implement a new AR interface (based in our project ARviewer) using phoneGap. phoneGap is a mobile framework based in HTML5/JS that allow execute the same source code HTML5 in differents mobile platforms (iphone, android, blackberry). It seem a good way to create portable source code. Since 3 years ago I work in this project with Raúl Román, a crack coder!!

Currently using phoneGap is not possible obtain the stream camera in the webView widget. So, this part of the source code must be developed in the native platform. We find another problem. We could not put the webview transparent so it would look the camera in the background, and paint objects on top with HTML. In this case, we asked for this to David A. Lareo (Bcultura) and Julio Rabadán (Somms.net) and gave us some very interesting clues about this problem.

The solution is implemented in the source code that you can see below. It's necessary that our main view (R.layout.main) is the main view, for this we do 'setContentView' and later we add the main view of 'DroidGap' using 'addview' and 'getParent'. Once we have our view mixed with phonegap main view, we set the backgroundColor transparent.

@Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); super.init(); super.loadUrl("file:///android_asset/www/index.html"); setContentView(R.layout.main); RelativeLayout view = (RelativeLayout) findViewById(R.id.main_container); // appView is the WebView object View html = (View)appView.getParent(); html.setBackgroundColor(Color.TRANSPARENT); view.addView (html, new LayoutParams(LayoutParams.FILL_PARENT, LayoutParams.FILL_PARENT)); appView.setBackgroundColor(Color.TRANSPARENT); }  

  Currently, we have started this project so I will post the full source code in this blog
Categories: FLOSS Research

Amarok Code Swarm

Paul Adams: Green Eggs and Ham - Fri, 2009-08-21 05:52

In my previous entry it was commented that it would be nice to see a code swarm for Amarok's history in SVN. Well... go on then.

Code Swarm is a tool which gives a time-based visualisation of activity in SVN. Whilst code swarm are often very pretty and fun to look at for 15 minutes, they are not very informative. Much of what appears is meaningless (e.g. the entry point of the particles) and some of it is ambiguous (e.g. the movement of particles).

Anyhow, I was surprised to see that someone hadn't already made one of these for Amarok. So, here it is:

Amarok Code Swarm from Paul Adams on Vimeo.

Categories: FLOSS Research

Amarok's SVN History - Community Network

Paul Adams: Green Eggs and Ham - Thu, 2009-08-20 08:08

I did not include a "who has worked with whom" community network graph in my previous post on the history of Amarok in SVN. This was largely because that blog post was written quite late and I didn't want to wait ages for the community network graph to be generated.

Well, now I have created it.


Click here for the complete, 8.1MB, 5111x3797 version

So, just to remind you... SVN accounts are linked if they have both worked on the same artifact at some point. The more artifacts they share, the closer together the SVN accounts are placed. The result of this is that the "core" community should appear closer to the middle of the graph.

Categories: FLOSS Research

Amarok's SVN History

Paul Adams: Green Eggs and Ham - Tue, 2009-08-18 16:25

So, as you might have recently seen, Amarok has now moved out of SVN. This was SVN r1002747 on 2009-07-26. Amarok first appeared in /trunk/kdeextragear-1/amarok on 2003-09-07 (r249141) thanks to an import from markey. It was migrated the to simplified extragear structure (/trunk/extragear/multimedia/amarok) at r409209 on 2005-05-04.

So, to mark this event I have created a green blob chart and a plot of daily commits and committers for the entire time Amarok was in SVN.

Simply right-click and download the green blobs to see them in their full-scale glory. I'm sorry the plot isn't too readable. It is caused by a recent day where there appears to be about 300 commits in Amarok; way above the average. I assume this is scripty gone mad again.

Categories: FLOSS Research
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