FLOSS Project Planets

Matt Glaman: My Dependabot configuration for Drupal (and other PHP projects)

Planet Drupal - Thu, 2024-01-04 11:19

I use GitHub to host my repositories, such as this website. To keep my dependencies up-to-date, I leverage Dependabot. The product has matured a lot over the past few years. Before, it was a standalone service and then acquired by GitHub. It did not support dependencies managed by Composer. It was pretty spammy and very noisy. However, it has drastically improved over the past few years. Thanks to all of those at GitHub who have worked to improve it (that includes you, Mike Crittenden.)

My Dependabot configuration consists of a few items, nothing overly specific.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Matt Glaman: PhpStorm live templates to automate the boring things

Planet Drupal - Thu, 2024-01-04 11:19

I finally took a look at writing a custom live template with PhpStorm. I've used them several times to automate scaffolding a foreach statement or other random suggestions that a Tab keypress leads to automated scaffolded code. But I never really dove in to see how they work or could be customized. Then, I had to fix some of my code to comply with Drupal's coding standards.

Drupal requires document comments for all methods, including a short comment. 

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Matt Glaman: How do theme template overrides in Drupal work?

Planet Drupal - Thu, 2024-01-04 11:19

In Drupal, with themes, you can override default template output by copying, pasting, and customizing those templates. It works, but how? I thought I always knew how this worked. But I realized I didn't when I dove into supporting Drupal 7 themes with Retrofit.

I know Drupal builds the theme registry and theme hook suggestions. In doing so, it scans templates, and part of that process includes scanning the active theme for template and theme hook template implementations. But when reading the \Drupal\Core\Theme\Registry code, I was coming up blank.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Matt Glaman: Protect your investment in Drupal 7 with Retrofit for Drupal

Planet Drupal - Thu, 2024-01-04 11:19

The final countdown to the Drupal 7 end-of-life has begun ticking after receiving its final extension. Why is upgrading from Drupal 7 to Drupal 10 so daunting? Three problems must be faced when upgrading from Drupal 7 to Drupal 10:

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

TechBeamers Python: A Beginner’s Guide to Python Random Sampling

Planet Python - Thu, 2024-01-04 09:07

Random sampling might sound complicated, but it’s a super useful skill when working with data in Python. It helps you pick out bits of information without going through everything. Python’s got this cool toolbox called the random module that makes random sampling a breeze. In this tutorial, we’re going to explore different ways to use […]

The post A Beginner’s Guide to Python Random Sampling appeared first on TechBeamers.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

LN Webworks: How Skilled Drupal Developers Can Benefit Your Business

Planet Drupal - Thu, 2024-01-04 04:55

Drupal is a cutting-edge and versatile content management system regarded as an incredible solution for a diverse range of web development projects. However, building a Drupal project that aligns with your business goals and produces the desired results can be quite challenging. To effortlessly navigate through all the complexities, it is best to hire proficient Drupal web developers who know how to unleash the true power of the CMS.

As a product of their rigorous training and vast experience, Drupal experts are well versed in the do’s and don’ts to tap into the unfathomable potential of the CMS. This implies that they can certainly take your business on an upward growth spiral with Drupal. Now, let’s delve into some more incredible benefits of hiring experienced Drupal developers.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Michael Ablassmeier: Migrating a system to Hetzner cloud using REAR and kexec

Planet Debian - Wed, 2024-01-03 19:00

I needed to migrate an existing system to an Hetzner cloud VPS. While it is possible to attach KVM consoles and custom ISO images to dedicated servers, i didn’t find any way to do so with regular cloud instances.

For system migrations i usually use REAR, which has never failed me. (and also has saved my ass during recovery multiple times). It’s an awesome utility!

It’s possible to do this using the Hetzner recovery console too, but using REAR is very convenient here, because it handles things like re-creating the partition layout and network settings automatically!

The steps are:

  • Create bootable REAR rescue image on the source system.
  • Register a target system in Hetzner Cloud with at least the same disk size as the source system.
  • Boot the REAR image’s initrd and kernel from the running VPS system using kexec
  • Make the REAR recovery console accessible via SSH (or use Hetzners console).
  • Let REAR do its magic and re-partition the system.
  • Restore the system data to the freshly partitioned disks
  • Let REAR handle the bootloader and network re-configuration.

To create a rescue image on the source system:

apt install rear echo OUTPUT=ISO > /etc/rear/local.conf rear mkrescue -v [..] Wrote ISO image: /var/lib/rear/output/rear-debian12.iso (185M)

My source system had a 128 GB disk, so i registered an instance on Hetzner cloud with greater disk size to make things easier:

Now copy the ISO image to the newly created instance and extract its data:

apt install kexec-tools scp rear-debian12.iso root@ modprobe loop mount -o loop rear-debian12.iso /mnt/ cp /mnt/isolinux/kernel /tmp/ cp /mnt/isolinux/initrd.cgz /tmp/

Install kexec if not installed already:

apt install kexec-tools

Note down the current gateway configuration, this is required later on to make the REAR recovery console reachable via SSH:

root@testme:~# ip route default via dev eth0 dev eth0 scope link

Reboot the running VPS instance into the REAR recovery image using somewhat the same kernel cmdline:

root@testme:~# cat /proc/cmdline BOOT_IMAGE=/boot/vmlinuz-6.1.0-13-amd64 root=UUID=5174a81e-5897-47ca-8fe4-9cd19dc678c4 ro consoleblank=0 systemd.show_status=true console=tty1 console=ttyS0 kexec --initrd /tmp/initrd.cgz --command-line="consoleblank=0 systemd.show_status=true console=tty1 console=ttyS0" /tmp/kernel Connection to closed by remote host. Connection to closed

Now watch the system on the Console booting into the REAR system:

Login the recovery console (root without password) and fix its default route to make it reachable:

ip addr [..] 2: enp1s0 .. $ ip route add dev enp1s0 $ ip route add default via ping 64 bytes from icmp_seq=83 ttl=52 time=27.7 ms

The network configuration might differ, the source system in this example used DHCP, as the target does. If REAR detects changed static network configuration it guides you through the setup pretty nicely.

Login via SSH (REAR will store your ssh public keys in the image) and start the recovery process, follow the steps as suggested by REAR:

ssh -l root Welcome to Relax-and-Recover. Run "rear recover" to restore your system ! RESCUE debian12:~ # rear recover Relax-and-Recover 2.7 / Git Running rear recover (PID 673 date 2024-01-04 19:20:22) Using log file: /var/log/rear/rear-debian12.log Running workflow recover within the ReaR rescue/recovery system Will do driver migration (recreating initramfs/initrd) Comparing disks Device vda does not exist (manual configuration needed) Switching to manual disk layout configuration (GiB sizes rounded down to integer) /dev/vda had size 137438953472 (128 GiB) but it does no longer exist /dev/sda was not used on the original system and has now 163842097152 (152 GiB) Original disk /dev/vda does not exist (with same size) in the target system Using /dev/sda (the only available of the disks) for recreating /dev/vda Current disk mapping table (source => target): /dev/vda => /dev/sda Confirm or edit the disk mapping 1) Confirm disk mapping and continue 'rear recover' [..] User confirmed recreated disk layout [..]

This step re-recreates your original disk layout and mounts it to /mnt/local/ (this example uses a pretty lame layout, but usually REAR will handle things like lvm/btrfs just nicely):

mount /dev/sda3 on /mnt/local type ext4 (rw,relatime,errors=remount-ro) /dev/sda1 on /mnt/local/boot type ext4 (rw,relatime)

Now clone your source systems data to /mnt/local/ with whatever utility you like to use and exit the recovery step. After confirming everything went well, REAR will setup the bootloader (and all other config details like fstab entries and adjusted network configuration) for you as required:

rear> exit Did you restore the backup to /mnt/local ? Are you ready to continue recovery ? yes User confirmed restored files Updated initramfs with new drivers for this system. Skip installing GRUB Legacy boot loader because GRUB 2 is installed (grub-probe or grub2-probe exist). Installing GRUB2 boot loader... Determining where to install GRUB2 (no GRUB2_INSTALL_DEVICES specified) Found possible boot disk /dev/sda - installing GRUB2 there Finished 'recover'. The target system is mounted at '/mnt/local'. Exiting rear recover (PID 7103) and its descendant processes ... Running exit tasks

Now reboot the recovery console and watch it boot into your target systems configuration:

Being able to use this procedure for complete disaster recovery within Hetzner cloud VPS (using off-site backups) gives me a better feeling, too.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

John Goerzen: Live Migrating from Raspberry Pi OS bullseye to Debian bookworm

Planet Debian - Wed, 2024-01-03 18:33

I’ve been getting annoyed with Raspberry Pi OS (Raspbian) for years now. It’s a fork of Debian, but manages to omit some of the most useful things. So I’ve decided to migrate all of my Pis to run pure Debian. These are my reasons:

  1. Raspberry Pi OS has, for years now, specified that there is no upgrade path. That is, to get to a newer major release, it’s a reinstall. While I have sometimes worked around this, for a device that is frequently installed in hard-to-reach locations, this is even more important than usual. It’s common for me to upgrade machines for a decade or more across Debian releases and there’s no reason that it should be so much more difficult with Raspbian.
  2. As I noted in Consider Security First, the security situation for Raspberry Pi OS isn’t as good as it is with Debian.
  3. Raspbian lags behind Debian – often times by 6 months or more for major releases, and days or weeks for bug fixes and security patches.
  4. Raspbian has no direct backports support, though Raspberry Pi 3 and above can use Debian’s backports (per my instructions as Installing Debian Backports on Raspberry Pi)
  5. Raspbian uses a custom kernel without initramfs support

It turns out it is actually possible to do an in-place migration from Raspberry Pi OS bullseye to Debian bookworm. Here I will describe how. Even if you don’t have a Raspberry Pi, this might still be instructive on how Raspbian and Debian packages work.


Before continuing, back up your system. This process isn’t for the neophyte and it is entirely possible to mess up your boot device to the point that you have to do a fresh install to get your Pi to boot. This isn’t a supported process at all.

Architecture Confusion

Debian has three ARM-based architectures:

  • armel, for the lowest-end 32-bit ARM devices without hardware floating point support
  • armhf, for the higher-end 32-bit ARM devices with hardware float (hence “hf”)
  • arm64, for 64-bit ARM devices (which all have hardware float)

Although the Raspberry Pi 0 and 1 do support hardware float, they lack support for other CPU features that Debian’s armhf architecture assumes. Therefore, the Raspberry Pi 0 and 1 could only run Debian’s armel architecture.

Raspberry Pi 3 and above are capable of running 64-bit, and can run both armhf and arm64.

Prior to the release of the Raspberry Pi 5 / Raspbian bookworm, Raspbian only shipped the armhf architecture. Well, it was an architecture they called armhf, but it was different from Debian’s armhf in that everything was recompiled to work with the more limited set of features on the earlier Raspberry Pi boards. It was really somewhere between Debian’s armel and armhf archs. You could run Debian armel on those, but it would run more slowly, due to doing floating point calculations without hardware support. Debian’s raspi FAQ goes into this a bit.

What I am going to describe here is going from Raspbian armhf to Debian armhf with a 64-bit kernel. Therefore, it will only work with Raspberry Pi 3 and above. It may theoretically be possible to take a Raspberry Pi 2 to Debian armhf with a 32-bit kernel, but I haven’t tried this and it may be more difficult. I have seen conflicting information on whether armhf really works on a Pi 2. (If you do try it on a Pi 2, ignore everything about arm64 and 64-bit kernels below, and just go with the linux-image-armmp-lpae kernel per the ARMMP page)

There is another wrinkle: Debian doesn’t support running 32-bit ARM kernels on 64-bit ARM CPUs, though it does support running a 32-bit userland on them. So we will wind up with a system with kernel packages from arm64 and everything else from armhf. This is a perfectly valid configuration as the arm64 – like x86_64 – is multiarch (that is, the CPU can natively execute both the 32-bit and 64-bit instructions).

(It is theoretically possible to crossgrade a system from 32-bit to 64-bit userland, but that felt like a rather heavy lift for dubious benefit on a Pi; nevertheless, if you want to make this process even more complicated, refer to the CrossGrading page.)

Prerequisites and Limitations

In addition to the need for a Raspberry Pi 3 or above in order for this to work, there are a few other things to mention.

If you are using the GPIO features of the Pi, I don’t know if those work with Debian.

I think Raspberry Pi OS modified the desktop environment more than other components. All of my Pis are headless, so I don’t know if this process will work if you use a desktop environment.

I am assuming you are booting from a MicroSD card as is typical in the Raspberry Pi world. The Pi’s firmware looks for a FAT partition (MBR type 0x0c) and looks within it for boot information. Depending on how long ago you first installed an OS on your Pi, your /boot may be too small for Debian. Use df -h /boot to see how big it is. I recommend 200MB at minimum. If your /boot is smaller than that, stop now (or use some other system to shrink your root filesystem and rearrange your partitions; I’ve done this, but it’s outside the scope of this article.)

You need to have stable power. Once you begin this process, your pi will mostly be left in a non-bootable state until you finish. (You… did make a backup, right?)

Basic idea

The basic idea here is that since bookworm has almost entirely newer packages then bullseye, we can “just” switch over to it and let the Debian packages replace the Raspbian ones as they are upgraded. Well, it’s not quite that easy, but that’s the main idea.


First, make a backup. Even an image of your MicroSD card might be nice. OK, I think I’ve said that enough now.

It would be a good idea to have a HDMI cable (with the appropriate size of connector for your particular Pi board) and a HDMI display handy so you can troubleshoot any bootup issues with a console.

Preparation: access

The Raspberry Pi OS by default sets up a user named pi that can use sudo to gain root without a password. I think this is an insecure practice, but assuming you haven’t changed it, you will need to ensure it still works once you move to Debian. Raspberry Pi OS had a patch in their sudo package to enable it, and that will be removed when Debian’s sudo package is installed. So, put this in /etc/sudoers.d/010_picompat:


Also, there may be no password set for the root account. It would be a good idea to set one; it makes it easier to log in at the console. Use the passwd command as root to do so.

Preparation: bluetooth

Debian doesn’t correctly identify the Bluetooth hardware address. You can save it off to a file by running hcitool dev > /root/bluetooth-from-raspbian.txt. I don’t use Bluetooth, but this should let you develop a script to bring it up properly.

Preparation: Debian archive keyring

You will next need to install Debian’s archive keyring so that apt can authenticate packages from Debian. Go to the bookworm download page for debian-archive-keyring and copy the URL for one of the files, then download it on the pi. For instance:

wget http://http.us.debian.org/debian/pool/main/d/debian-archive-keyring/debian-archive-keyring_2023.3+deb12u1_all.deb

Use sha256sum to verify the checksum of the downloaded file, comparing it to the package page on the Debian site.

Now, you’ll install it with:

dpkg -i debian-archive-keyring_2023.3+deb12u1_all.deb Package first steps

From here on, we are making modifications to the system that can leave it in a non-bootable state.

Examine /etc/apt/sources.list and all the files in /etc/apt/sources.list.d. Most likely you will want to delete or comment out all lines in all files there. Replace them with something like:

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ bookworm main non-free-firmware contrib non-free deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security bookworm-security main non-free-firmware contrib non-free deb https://deb.debian.org/debian bookworm-backports main non-free-firmware contrib non-free

(you might leave off contrib and non-free depending on your needs)

Now, we’re going to tell it that we’ll support arm64 packages:

dpkg --add-architecture arm64

And finally, download the bookworm package lists:

apt-get update

If there are any errors from that command, fix them and don’t proceed until you have a clean run of apt-get update.

Moving /boot to /boot/firmware

The boot FAT partition I mentioned above is mounted at /boot by Raspberry Pi OS, but Debian’s scripts assume it will be at /boot/firmware. We need to fix this. First:

umount /boot mkdir /boot/firmware

Now, edit fstab and change the reference to /boot to be to /boot/firmware. Now:

mount -v /boot/firmware cd /boot/firmware mv -vi * ..

This mounts the filesystem at the new location, and moves all its contents back to where apt believes it should be. Debian’s packages will populate /boot/firmware later.

Installing the first packages

Now we start by installing the first of the needed packages. Eventually we will wind up with roughly the same set Debian uses.

apt-get install linux-image-arm64 apt-get install firmware-brcm80211=20230210-5 apt-get install raspi-firmware

If you get errors relating to firmware-brcm80211 from any commands, run that install firmware-brcm80211 command and then proceed. There are a few packages that Raspbian marked as newer than the version in bookworm (whether or not they really are), and that’s one of them.

Configuring the bootloader

We need to configure a few things in /etc/default/raspi-firmware before proceeding. Edit that file.

First, uncomment (or add) a line like this:


Next, in /boot/cmdline.txt you can find your old Raspbian boot command line. It will say something like:


Save off the bit starting with PARTUUID. Back in /etc/default/raspi-firmware, set a line like this:


(substituting your real value for abcdef00).

This is necessary because the microSD card device name often changes from /dev/mmcblk0 to /dev/mmcblk1 when switching to Debian’s kernel. raspi-firmware will encode the current device name in /boot/firmware/cmdline.txt by default, which will be wrong once you boot into Debian’s kernel. The PARTUUID approach lets it work regardless of the device name.

Purging the Raspbian kernel


dpkg --purge raspberrypi-kernel Upgrading the system

At this point, we are going to run the procedure beginning at section 4.4.3 of the Debian release notes. Generally, you will do:

apt-get -u upgrade apt full-upgrade

Fix any errors at each step before proceeding to the next. Now, to remove some cruft, run:

apt-get --purge autoremove

Inspect the list to make sure nothing important isn’t going to be removed.

Removing Raspbian cruft

You can list some of the cruft with:

apt list '~o'

And remove it with:

apt purge '~o'

I also don’t run Bluetooth, and it seemed to sometimes hang on boot becuase I didn’t bother to fix it, so I did:

apt-get --purge remove bluez Installing some packages

This makes sure some basic Debian infrastructure is available:

apt-get install wpasupplicant parted dosfstools wireless-tools iw alsa-tools apt-get --purge autoremove Installing firmware

Now run:

apt-get install firmware-linux Resolving firmware package version issues

If it gives an error about the installed version of a package, you may need to force it to the bookworm version. For me, this often happened with firmware-atheros, firmware-libertas, and firmware-realtek.

Here’s how to resolve it, with firmware-realtek as an example:

  1. Go to https://packages.debian.org/PACKAGENAME – for instance, https://packages.debian.org/firmware-realtek. Note the version number in bookworm – in this case, 20230210-5.

  2. Now, you will force the installation of that package at that version:

    apt-get install firmware-realtek=20230210-5
  3. Repeat with every conflicting package until done.

  4. Rerun apt-get install firmware-linux and make sure it runs cleanly.

Also, in the end you should be able to:

apt-get install firmware-atheros firmware-libertas firmware-realtek firmware-linux Dealing with other Raspbian packages

The Debian release notes discuss removing non-Debian packages. There will still be a few of those. Run:

apt list '?narrow(?installed, ?not(?origin(Debian)))'

Deal with them; mostly you will need to force the installation of a bookworm version using the procedure in the section Resolving firmware package version issues above (even if it’s not for a firmware package). For non-firmware packages, you might possibly want to add --mark-auto to your apt-get install command line to allow the package to be autoremoved later if the things depending on it go away.

If you aren’t going to use Bluetooth, I recommend apt-get --purge remove bluez as well. Sometimes it can hang at boot if you don’t fix it up as described above.

Set up networking

We’ll be switching to the Debian method of networking, so we’ll create some files in /etc/network/interfaces.d. First, eth0 should look like this:

allow-hotplug eth0 iface eth0 inet dhcp iface eth0 inet6 auto

And wlan0 should look like this:

allow-hotplug wlan0 iface wlan0 inet dhcp wpa-conf /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

Raspbian is inconsistent about using eth0/wlan0 or renamed interface. Run ifconfig or ip addr. If you see a long-named interface such as enx<something> or wlp<something>, copy the eth0 file to the one named after the enx interface, or the wlan0 file to the one named after the wlp interface, and edit the internal references to eth0/wlan0 in this new file to name the long interface name.

If using wifi, verify that your SSIDs and passwords are in /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf. It should have lines like:

network={ ssid="NetworkName" psk="passwordHere" }

(This is where Raspberry Pi OS put them).

Deal with DHCP

Raspberry Pi OS used dhcpcd, whereas bookworm normally uses isc-dhcp-client. Verify the system is in the correct state:

apt-get install isc-dhcp-client apt-get --purge remove dhcpcd dhcpcd-base dhcpcd5 dhcpcd-dbus Set up LEDs

To set up the LEDs to trigger on MicroSD activity as they did with Raspbian, follow the Debian instructions. Run apt-get install sysfsutils. Then put this in a file at /etc/sysfs.d/local-raspi-leds.conf:

class/leds/ACT/brightness = 1 class/leds/ACT/trigger = mmc1 Prepare for boot

To make sure all the /boot/firmware files are updated, run update-initramfs -u. Verify that root in /boot/firmware/cmdline.txt references the PARTUUID as appropriate. Verify that /boot/firmware/config.txt contains the lines arm_64bit=1 and upstream_kernel=1. If not, go back to the section on modifying /etc/default/raspi-firmware and fix it up.

The moment arrives

Cross your fingers and try rebooting into your Debian system:


For some reason, I found that the first boot into Debian seems to hang for 30-60 seconds during bootstrap. I’m not sure why; don’t panic if that happens. It may be necessary to power cycle the Pi for this boot.


If things don’t work out, hook up the Pi to a HDMI display and see what’s up. If I anticipated a particular problem, I would have documented it here (a lot of the things I documented here are because I ran into them!) So I can’t give specific advice other than to watch boot messages on the console. If you don’t even get kernel messages going, then there is some problem with your partition table or /boot/firmware FAT partition. Otherwise, you’ve at least got the kernel going and can troubleshoot like usual from there.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

FSF Blogs: FSD meeting recap 2023-12-29

GNU Planet! - Wed, 2024-01-03 15:58
Check out the important work our volunteers accomplished at today's Free Software Directory (FSD) IRC meeting.
Categories: FLOSS Project Planets