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Updated: 15 hours 28 min ago

GNU Guix: New Supported Platform: powerpc64le-linux

Sun, 2021-04-11 20:00

It is a pleasure to announce that support for powerpc64le-linux (PowerISA v.2.07 and later) has now been merged to the master branch of GNU Guix!

This means that GNU Guix can be used immediately on this platform from a Git checkout. Starting with the next release (Guix v1.2.1), you will also be able to download a copy of Guix pre-built for powerpc64le-linux. Regardless of how you get it, you can run the new powerpc64le-linux port of GNU Guix on top of any existing powerpc64le GNU/Linux distribution.

This new platform is available as a "technology preview". This means that although it is supported, substitutes are not yet available from the build farm, and some packages may fail to build. Although powerpc64le-linux support is nascent, the Guix community is actively working on improving it, and this is a great time to get involved!

Why Is This Important?

This is important because it means that GNU Guix now works on the Talos II, Talos II Lite, and Blackbird mainboards sold by Raptor Computing Systems. This modern, performant hardware uses IBM POWER9 processors, and it is designed to respect your freedom. The Talos II and Talos II Lite have recently received Respects Your Freedom (RYF) certification from the FSF, and Raptor Computing Systems is currently pursuing RYF certification for the more affordable Blackbird, too. All of this hardware can run without any non-free code, even the bootloader and firmware. In other words, this is a freedom-friendly hardware platform that aligns well with GNU Guix's commitment to software freedom.

How is this any different from existing RYF hardware, you might ask? One reason is performance. The existing RYF laptops, mainboards, and workstations can only really be used with Intel Core Duo or AMD Opteron processors. Those processors were released over 15 years ago. Since then, processor performance has increased drastically. People should not have to choose between performance and freedom, but for many years that is exactly what we were forced to do. However, the POWER9 machines sold by Raptor Computing Systems have changed this: the free software community now has an RYF-certified option that can compete with the performance of modern Intel and AMD systems.

Although the performance of POWER9 processors is competitive with modern Intel and AMD processors, the real advantage of the Talos II, Talos II Lite, and Blackbird is that they were designed from the start to respect your freedom. Modern processors from both Intel and AMD include back doors over which you are given no control. Even though the back doors can be removed with significant effort on older hardware in some cases, this is an obstacle that nobody should have to overcome just to control their own computer. Many of the existing RYF-certified options (e.g., the venerable Lenovo x200) use hardware that can only be considered RYF-certified after someone has gone through the extra effort of removing those back doors. No such obstacles exist when using the Talos II, Talos II Lite, or Blackbird. In fact, although Intel and AMD both go out of their way to keep you from understanding what is going on in your own computer, Raptor Computing Systems releases all of the software and firmware used in their boards as free software. They even include circuit diagrams when they ship you the machine!

Compared to the existing options, the Talos II, Talos II Lite, and Blackbird are a breath of fresh air that the free software community really deserves. Raptor Computing Systems' commitment to software freedom and owner control is an inspiring reminder that it is possible to ship a great product while still respecting the freedom of your customers. And going forward, the future looks bright for the open, royalty-free Power ISA stewarded by the OpenPOWER Foundation, which is now a Linux Foundation project (see also: the same announcement from the OpenPOWER Foundation.

In the rest of this blog post, we will discuss the steps we took to port Guix to powerpc64le-linux, the issues we encountered, and the steps we can take going forward to further solidify support for this exciting new platform.

Bootstrapping powerpc64le-linux: A Journey

To build software, you need software. How can one port Guix to a platform before support for that platform exists? This is a bootstrapping problem.

In Guix, all software for a given platform (e.g., powerpc64le-linux) is built starting from a small set of "bootstrap binaries". These are binaries of Guile, GCC, Binutils, libc, and a few other packages, pre-built for the relevant platform. It is intended that the bootstrap binaries are the only pieces of software in the entire package collection that Guix cannot build from source. In practice, additional bootstrap roots are possible, but introducing them in Guix is highly discouraged, and our community actively works to reduce our overall bootstrap footprint. There is one set of bootstrap binaries for each platform that Guix supports.

This means that to port Guix to a new platform, you must first build the bootstrap binaries for that platform. In theory, you can do this in many ways. For example, you might try to manually compile them on an existing system. However, Guix has package definitions that you can use to build them - using Guix, of course!

Commonly, the first step in porting Guix to a new platform is to use Guix to cross-compile the bootstrap binaries for that new platform from a platform on which Guix is already supported. This can be done by running a command like the following on a system where Guix is already installed:

guix build --target=powerpc64le-linux-gnu bootstrap-tarballs

This is the route that we took when building the powerpc64le-linux bootstrap binaries, as described in commit 8a1118a. You might wonder why the target above is "powerpc64le-linux-gnu" even though the new Guix platform is called "powerpc64le-linux". This is because "powerpc64le-linux-gnu" is a GNU triplet identifying the new platform, but "powerpc64le-linux" is the name of a "system" (i.e., a platform) in Guix. Guix contains code that converts between the two as needed (see nix-system->gnu-triplet and gnu-triplet->nix-system in guix/utils.scm. When cross-compiling, you only need to specify the GNU triplet.

Note that before you can even do this, you must first update the glibc-dynamic-linker and system->linux-architecture procedures in Guix's code, as described in Porting. In addition, the versions of packages in Guix that make up the GNU toolchain (gcc, glibc, etc.) must already support the target platform. This pre-existing toolchain support needs to be good enough so that Guix can (1) build, on some already-supported platform, a cross-compilation toolchain for the target platform, (2) use, on the already-supported platform, the cross-compilation toolchain to cross-compile the bootstrap binaries for the target platform, and (3) use, on the target platform, the bootstrap binaries to natively build the rest of the Guix package collection. The above guix build command takes care of steps (1) and (2) automatically.

Step (3) is a little more involved. Once the bootstrap binaries for the target platform have been built, they must be published online for anyone to download. After that, Guix's code must be updated so that (a) it recognizes the "system" name (e.g., "powerpc64le-linux") that will be used to identify the new platform and (b) it fetches the new platform's bootstrap binaries from the right location. After all that is done, you just have to try building things and see what breaks. For example, you can run ./pre-inst-env guix build hello from your Git checkout to try building GNU Hello.

The actual bootstrap binaries for powerpc64le-linux are stored on the alpha.gnu.org FTP server. Chris Marusich built these bootstrap binaries in an x86_64-linux Guix System VM which was running on hardware owned by Léo Le Bouter. Chris then signed the binaries and provided them to Ludovic Courtès, who in turn verified their authenticity, signed them, and uploaded them to alpha.gnu.org. After that, we updated the code to use the newly published bootstrap binaries in commit 8a1118a. Once all that was done, we could begin bootstrapping the rest of the system - or trying to, at least.

There were many stumbling blocks. For example, to resolve some test failures, we had to update the code in Guix that enables it to make certain syscalls from scheme. In another example, we had to patch GCC so that it looks for the 64-bit libraries in /lib, rather than /lib64, since that is where Guix puts its 64-bit libraries by convention. In addition, some packages required in order to build Guix failed to build, so we had to debug those build failures, too.

For a list of all the changes, see the patch series or the actual commits, which are:

$ git log --oneline --no-decorate 8a1118a96c9ae128302c3d435ae77cb3dd693aea^..65c46e79e0495fe4d32f6f2725d7233fff10fd70 65c46e79e0 gnu: sed: Make it build on SELinux-enabled kernels. 93f21e1a35 utils: Fix target-64bit? on powerpc64le-linux. 8d9aece8c4 ci: %cross-targets: Add powerpc64le-linux-gnu. c29bfbfc78 syscalls: Fix RNDADDTOENTCNT on powerpc64le-linux. b57de27d03 syscalls: Fix clone on powerpc64le-linux. a16eb6c5f9 Add powerpc64le-linux as a supported Guix architecture. b50f426803 gnu: libelf: Fix compilation for powerpc64le-linux. 1a0f4013d3 gnu: texlive-latex-base: Fix compilation on powerpc64le*. e9938dc8f0 gnu: texlive-bin: Fix compilation on powerpc64le*. 69b3907adf gnu: guile-avahi: Fix compilation on powerpc64le-linux. 4cc2d2aa59 gnu: bdb-4.8: Fix configure on powerpc64le-linux. be4b1cf53b gnu: binutils-final: Support more Power architectures. 060478c32c gnu: binutils-final: Provide bash for binary on powerpc-linux. b2135b5d57 gnu: gcc-boot0: Enable 128-bit long double for POWER9. 6e98e9ca92 gnu: glibc: Fix ldd path on powerpc*. cac88b28b8 gnu: gcc-4.7: On powerpc64le, fix /lib64 references. fc7cf0c1ec utils: Add target-powerpc? procedure. 8a1118a96c gnu: bootstrap: Add support for powerpc64le-linux.

In the end, through the combined efforts of multiple people, we slowly worked through the issues until we reached a point where we could do all of the following things successfully:

  • Build Guix manually on a Debian GNU/Linux ppc64el machine (this is Debian's name for a system using the powerpc64le-linux-gnu triplet), and verify that its make check tests passed.
  • Build GNU Hello using Guix and run it.
  • Run guix pull to build and install the most recent version of Guix, with powerpc64le-linux support.
  • Build a release binary tarball for powerpc64le-linux via: make guix-binary.powerpc64le-linux.tar.xz
  • Use that binary to install a version of Guix that could build/run GNU Hello and run guix pull successfully.

This was an exciting moment! But there was still more work to be done.

Originally, we did this work on the wip-ppc64le branch, with the intent of merging it into core-updates. By convention, the "core-updates" branch in Guix is where changes are made if they cause too many rebuilds. Since we were updating package definitions so deep in the dependency graph of the package collection, we assumed it wouldn't be possible to avoid rebuilding the world. For this reason, we had based the wip-ppc64le branch on core-updates.

However, Efraim Flashner proved us wrong! He created a separate branch, wip-ppc64le-for-master, where he adjusted some of the wip-ppc64le commits to avoid rebuilding the world on other platforms. Thanks to his work, we were able to merge the changes directly to master! This meant that we would be able to include it in the next release (Guix v.1.2.1).

In short, the initial porting work is done, and it is now possible for anyone to easily try out Guix on this new platform. Because guix pull works, too, it is also easy to iterate on what we have and work towards improving support for the platform. It took a lot of cooperation and effort to get this far, but there are multiple people actively contributing to this port in the Guix community who want to see it succeed. We hope you will join us in exploring the limits of this exciting new freedom-friendly platform!

Other Porting Challenges

Very early in the porting process, there were some other problems that stymied our work.

First, we actually thought we would try to port to powerpc64-linux (big-endian). However, this did not prove to be any easier than the little-endian port. In addition, other distributions (e.g., Debian and Fedora) have recently dropped their big-endian powerpc64 ports, so the little-endian variant is more likely to be tested and supported in the community. For these reasons, we decided to focus our efforts on the little-endian variant, and so far we haven't looked back.

In both the big-endian and little-endian case, we were saddened to discover that the bootstrap binaries are not entirely reproducible. This fact is documented in bug 41669, along with our extensive investigations.

In short, if you build the bootstrap binaries on two separate machines without using any substitutes, you will find that the derivation which cross-compiles %gcc-static (the bootstrap GCC, version 5.5.0) produces different output on the two systems. However, if you build %gcc-static twice on the same system, it builds reproducibly. This suggests that something in the transitive closure of inputs of %gcc-static is perhaps contributing to its non-reproducibility. There is an interesting graph toward the end of the bug report, shown below:

This graph shows the derivations that produce differing outputs across two Guix System machines, when everything is built without substitutes. It starts from the derivation that cross-compiles %gcc-static for powerpc64-linux-gnu (from x86_64-linux) using Guix at commit 1ced8379c7641788fa607b19b7a66d18f045362b. Then, it walks the graph of derivation inputs, recording only those derivations which produce differing output on the two different machines. If the non-reproducibility (across systems) of %gcc-static is caused by a non-reproducible input, then it is probably caused by one or more of the derivations shown in this graph.

At some point, you have to cut your losses and move on. After months of investigation without resolving the reproducibility issue, we finally decided to move forward with the bootstrap binaries produced earlier. If necessary, we can always go back and try to fix this issue. However, it seemed more important to get started with the bootstrapping work.

Anyone who is interested in solving this problem is welcome to comment on the bug report and help us to figure out the mystery. We are very interested in solving it, but at the moment we are more focused on building the rest of the Guix package collection on the powerpc64le-linux platform using the existing bootstrap binaries.

Next Steps

It is now possible to install Guix on a powerpc64le-linux system and use it to build some useful software - in particular, Guix itself. So Guix is now "self-hosted" on this platform, which gives us a comfortable place to begin further work.

The following tasks still need to be done. Anyone can help, so please get in touch if you want to contribute!

About GNU Guix

GNU Guix is a transactional package manager and an advanced distribution of the GNU system that respects user freedom. Guix can be used on top of any system running the Hurd or the Linux kernel, or it can be used as a standalone operating system distribution for i686, x86_64, ARMv7, and AArch64 machines.

In addition to standard package management features, Guix supports transactional upgrades and roll-backs, unprivileged package management, per-user profiles, and garbage collection. When used as a standalone GNU/Linux distribution, Guix offers a declarative, stateless approach to operating system configuration management. Guix is highly customizable and hackable through Guile programming interfaces and extensions to the Scheme language.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Andy Wingo: guile's reader, in guile

Sun, 2021-04-11 15:51

Good evening! A brief(ish?) note today about some Guile nargery.

the arc of history

Like many language implementations that started life when you could turn on the radio and expect to hear Def Leppard, Guile has a bottom half and a top half. The bottom half is written in C and exposes a shared library and an executable, and the top half is written in the language itself (Scheme, in the case of Guile) and somehow loaded by the C code when the language implementation starts.

Since 2010 or so we have been working at replacing bits written in C with bits written in Scheme. Last week's missive was about replacing the implementation of dynamic-link from using the libltdl library to using Scheme on top of a low-level dlopen wrapper. I've written about rewriting eval in Scheme, and more recently about how the road to getting the performance of C implementations in Scheme has been sometimes long.

These rewrites have a quixotic aspect to them. I feel something in my gut about rightness and wrongness and I know at a base level that moving from C to Scheme is the right thing. Much of it is completely irrational and can be out of place in a lot of contexts -- like if you have a task to get done for a customer, you need to sit and think about minimal steps from here to the goal and the gut doesn't have much of a role to play in how you get there. But it's nice to have a project where you can do a thing in the way you'd like, and if it takes 10 years, that's fine.

But besides the ineffable motivations, there are concrete advantages to rewriting something in Scheme. I find Scheme code to be more maintainable, yes, and more secure relative to the common pitfalls of C, obviously. It decreases the amount of work I will have when one day I rewrite Guile's garbage collector. But also, Scheme code gets things that C can't have: tail calls, resumable delimited continuations, run-time instrumentation, and so on.

Taking delimited continuations as an example, five years ago or so I wrote a lightweight concurrency facility for Guile, modelled on Parallel Concurrent ML. It lets millions of fibers to exist on a system. When a fiber would need to block on an I/O operation (read or write), instead it suspends its continuation, and arranges to restart it when the operation becomes possible.

A lot had to change in Guile for this to become a reality. Firstly, delimited continuations themselves. Later, a complete rewrite of the top half of the ports facility in Scheme, to allow port operations to suspend and resume. Many of the barriers to resumable fibers were removed, but the Fibers manual still names quite a few.

Scheme read, in Scheme

Which brings us to today's note: I just rewrote Guile's reader in Scheme too! The reader is the bit that takes a stream of characters and parses it into S-expressions. It was in C, and now is in Scheme.

One of the primary motivators for this was to allow read to be suspendable. With this change, read-eval-print loops are now implementable on fibers.

Another motivation was to finally fix a bug in which Guile couldn't record source locations for some kinds of datums. It used to be that Guile would use a weak-key hash table to associate datums returned from read with source locations. But this only works for fresh values, not for immediate values like small integers or characters, nor does it work for globally unique non-immediates like keywords and symbols. So for these, we just wouldn't have any source locations.

A robust solution to that problem is to return annotated objects rather than using a side table. Since Scheme's macro expander is already set to work with annotated objects (syntax objects), a new read-syntax interface would do us a treat.

With read in C, this was hard to do. But with read in Scheme, it was no problem to implement. Adapting the expander to expect source locations inside syntax objects was a bit fiddly, though, and the resulting increase in source location information makes the output files bigger by a few percent -- due somewhat to the increased size of the .debug_lines DWARF data, but also due to serialized source locations for syntax objects in macros.

Speed-wise, switching to read in Scheme is a regression, currently. The old reader could parse around 15 or 16 megabytes per second when recording source locations on this laptop, or around 22 or 23 MB/s with source locations off. The new one parses more like 10.5 MB/s, or 13.5 MB/s with positions off, when in the old mode where it uses a weak-key side table to record source locations. The new read-syntax runs at around 12 MB/s. We'll be noodling at these in the coming months, but unlike when the original reader was written, at least now the reader is mainly used only at compile time. (It still has a role when reading s-expressions as data, so there is still a reason to make it fast.)

As is the case with eval, we still have a C version of the reader available for bootstrapping purposes, before the Scheme version is loaded. Happily, with this rewrite I was able to remove all of the cruft from the C reader related to non-default lexical syntax, which simplifies maintenance going forward.

An interesting aspect of attempting to make a bug-for-bug rewrite is that you find bugs and unexpected behavior. For example, it turns out that since the dawn of time, Guile always read #t and #f without requiring a terminating delimiter, so reading "(#t1)" would result in the list (#t 1). Weird, right? Weirder still, when the #true and #false aliases were added to the language, Guile decided to support them by default, but in an oddly backwards-compatible way... so "(#false1)" reads as (#f 1) but "(#falsa1)" reads as (#f alsa1). Quite a few more things like that.

All in all it would seem to be a successful rewrite, introducing no new behavior, even producing the same errors. However, this is not the case for backtraces, which can expose the guts of read in cases where that previously wouldn't happen because the C stack was opaque to Scheme. Probably we will simply need to add more sensible error handling around callers to read, as a backtrace isn't a good user-facing error anyway.

OK enough rambling for this evening. Happy hacking to all and to all a good night!

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Andy Wingo: sign of the times

Thu, 2021-04-08 15:09

Hello all! There is a mounting backlog of things that landed in Guile recently and to avoid having to eat the whole plate in one bite, I'm going to try to send some shorter missives over the next weeks.

Today's is about a silly thing, dynamic-link. This interface is dlopen, but "portable". See, back in the day -- like, 1998 -- there were lots of kinds of systems and how to make and load a shared library portably was hard. You'd have people with AIX and Solaris and all kinds of weird compilers and linkers filing bugs on your project if you hard-coded a GNU toolchain invocation when creating loadable extensions, or hard-coded dlopen or similar to use them.

Libtool provided a solution to create portable loadable libraries, which involved installing .la files alongside the .so files. You could use libtool to link them to a library or an executable, or you could load them at run-time via the libtool-provided libltdl library.

But, the .la files were a second source of truth, and thus a source of bugs. If a .la file is present, so is an .so file, and you could always just use the .so file directly. For linking against an installed shared library on modern toolchains, the .la files are strictly redundant. Therefore, all GNU/Linux distributions just delete installed .la files -- Fedora, Debian, and even Guix do so.

Fast-forward to today: there has been a winnowing of platforms, and a widening of the GNU toolchain (in which I include LLVM as well as it has a mostly-compatible interface). The only remaining toolchain flavors are GNU and Windows, from the point of view of creating loadable shared libraries. Whether you use libtool or not to create shared libraries, the result can be loaded either way. And from the user side, dlopen is the universally supported interface, outside of Windows; even Mac OS fixed their implementation a few years back.

So in Guile we have been in an unstable equilibrium: creating shared libraries by including a probably-useless libtool into the toolchain, and loading them by using a probably-useless libtool-provided libltdl.

But the use of libltdl has not been without its costs. Because libltdl intends to abstract over different platforms, it encourages you to leave off the extension when loading a library, instead promising to try a platform-specific set such as .so, .dll, .dylib etc as appropriate. In practice the abstraction layer was under-maintained and we always had some problems on Mac OS, for example.

Worse, as ltdl would search through the path for candidates, it would only report the last error it saw from the underlying dlopen interface. It was almost always the case that if A and B were in the search path, and A/foo.so failed to load because of a missing dependency, the error you would get as a user would instead be "file not found", because ltdl swallowed the first error and kept trucking to try to load B/foo.so which didn't exist.

In summary, this is a case where the benefits of an abstraction layer decline over time. For a few years now, libltdl hasn't been paying for itself. Libtool is dead, for all intents and purposes (last release in 2015); best to make plans to migrate away, somehow.

In the case of the dlopen replacement, in Guile we ended up rewriting the functionality in Scheme. The underlying facility is now just plain dlopen, for which we shim a version of dlopen on Windows, inspired by the implementation in cygwin. There are still platform-specific library extensions, but that is handled easily on the Scheme layer.

Looking forward, I think it's probably time to replace Guile's use of libtool to create its libraries and executables. I loathe the fact that libtool puts shell scripts in the place of executables in build directories and stashes the actual executables elsewhere -- like, visceral revulsion. There is no need for that nowadays. Not sure what to replace it with, nor on what timeline.

And what about autotools? That, my friends, would be a whole nother blog post. Until then, & probably sooner, happy hacking!

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

GNU Guix: Outreachy 'guix git log' internship wrap-up

Thu, 2021-04-08 13:00

Magali Lemes joined Guix in December for a three-month internship with Outreachy. Magali implemented a guix git log command to browse the history of packaging changes, with mentoring from Simon Tournier and Gábor Boskovits. In this blog post, Magali and Simon wrap up on what's been accomplished.

Magali

The first tasks I had to do were pretty simple and were mainly meant to both get me acquainted with the source code and set the building blocks of the project. They were very important so that I could gradually build the subcommand. For starters, I created a Guix repository on Gitlab, so that I could push all the work I had done there, tweaked a little bit of the source code, and then proceeded to have the guix git log subcommand show the default channel checkout path.

From there on, I started adding options to the subcommand. The oneline option was the first and simplest option, and it pretty much emulates what git log --oneline does: it displays the commit short hash id and title. Afterwards, other options such as format, pretty, and grep came along. The possibility of retrieving commits from other channels---and not only from the default one---was also implemented. An example of invoking the subcommand would be:

guix git log --oneline --grep=guile-git

The road to doing all of this wasn't always smooth. Right at the beginning of the internship, for instance, I struggled with getting a segmentation fault error. It was a known bug, and I was able to overcome it.

I also got to participate in the one-day Guix workshop---a FOSDEM 2021 fringe event---and presented the work I had done so far. It was quite nice demonstrating the subcommand, receiving feedback and questions, and I could also get to know other things that were being worked on in Guix.

In the post I wrote three months ago, I mention that I wish I could gain meaningful experience and improve my communication skills. I'm glad to say that I feel like I was able to achieve that. Sending emails, explaining what I had done, and asking questions about what I had to do during the weekly meetings were a few of the situations I had to face, and that made me improve these skills. I also had a taste of what it's like to take part in a free software project, got to know a few people, and learned quite a lot about Guile Scheme.

One thing, though, that I wasn't able to implement in due time was the commit limiting options, such as guix git log --after=YYYY-MM-DD and guix git log --before=YYYY-MM-DD.

Hopefully, soon users will be able to invoke guix git log, and have the commit history from all Guix channels they have.

Simon

It was my first experience mentoring for the Outreachy program and now I am glad I did it. I have learnt a lot on various topics. I had already mentored interns occasionally, though it was the first time fully remote, not on the same timezone, and with code on which I am not expert. Thanks Gábor, Ludovic and Ricardo for pushing me to jump in this journey.

Reading back the initial proposal coming from a 2019 question, I am happy by the insofar Magali's internship. It paves the way for future proposals or the implementation of other guix git subcommands.

Next Outreachy round & acknowledgment

Guix is participating in the upcoming Outreachy round. If you are eligible, please get in touch with us and consider applying by April 30th!

In light of recent changes at the Free Software Foundation (FSF) and Outreachy’s subsequent decision to refuse funds coming from the FSF, we are grateful to Software Freedom Conservancy (SFC) for their decision to sponsor our upcoming internship. We are working on a longer-term solution so we can keep participating in Outreachy. In the meantime, thanks a lot, Conservancy!

About GNU Guix

GNU Guix is a transactional package manager and an advanced distribution of the GNU system that respects user freedom. Guix can be used on top of any system running the kernel Linux, or it can be used as a standalone operating system distribution for i686, x86_64, ARMv7, and AArch64 machines.

In addition to standard package management features, Guix supports transactional upgrades and roll-backs, unprivileged package management, per-user profiles, and garbage collection. When used as a standalone GNU/Linux distribution, Guix offers a declarative, stateless approach to operating system configuration management. Guix is highly customizable and hackable through Guile programming interfaces and extensions to the Scheme language.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

FSF Blogs: March GNU Spotlight with Mike Gerwitz: 14 new GNU releases!

Wed, 2021-04-07 12:46
14 new GNU releases in the last month (as of March 25, 2021):
Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

poke @ Savannah: [VIDEO] Terminal Hyperlinks in GNU poke

Tue, 2021-04-06 13:58

Terminal Hyperlinks are a new way for programs to print click-able text in terminals and terminal emulators.  Along with the app:// protocol, the hyperlinks can be used to greatly enhance the experience of using CLI (command-line interface) programs.  We are making extensive usage of this novel feature in GNU poke and we are very happy with the results.

This short video introduces the terminal hyperlinks, the app protocol and shows a few examples on how poke uses them.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Eg9Zn8AtY8

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

libredwg @ Savannah: libredwg-0.12.4 released

Tue, 2021-04-06 08:40

Fixed many more minor fuzzing errors.
See https://www.gnu.org/software/libredwg/ and https://github.com/LibreDWG/libredwg/blob/0.12.4/NEWS

Here are the compressed sources:
http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/libredwg/libredwg-0.12.4.tar.gz (17.4MB)
http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/libredwg/libredwg-0.12.4.tar.xz (9MB)

Here are the GPG detached signatures[*]:
http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/libredwg/libredwg-0.12.4.tar.gz.sig
http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/libredwg/libredwg-0.12.4.tar.xz.sig

Use a mirror for higher download bandwidth:
https://www.gnu.org/order/ftp.html

Here are more binaries:
https://github.com/LibreDWG/libredwg/releases/tag/0.12.4

Here are the SHA256 checksums:

```
081e9a70be529542b905b04be73e3e7590d60b1e976c0227f47004f3373ed9b1  libredwg-0.12.4.tar.gz
918857f119c34d9bef17321b646c4ba0fbfaa93dcaced403bae1933e1d9a6517  libredwg-0.12.4.tar.xz
```

[*] Use a .sig file to verify that the corresponding file (without the
.sig suffix) is intact. First, be sure to download both the .sig file
and the corresponding tarball. Then, run a command like this:

gpg --verify libredwg-0.12.4.tar.gz.sig

If that command fails because you don't have the required public key,
then run this command to import it:

gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys B4F63339E65D6414

and rerun the gpg --verify command.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Parabola GNU/Linux-libre: i686 desktop users should refrain from upgrading

Mon, 2021-04-05 07:22

users of a GTK-based desktops (LXDE, MATE, possibly others) on the i686 system, should refrain from upgrading for some time, or else the desktop may not start properly - this bug does not affect X86_64

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Sylvain Beucler: planet.gnu.org is looking for a new host and maintainer

Mon, 2021-04-05 06:48

Around 3 years ago I revamped planet.gnu.org and hosted it myself, as the previous host was defunc.

I won't have the energy host it for much longer, so planet.gnu.org is now looking for a new host and maintainer.
In any case I'll shut down the service when I upgrade to Debian 11 "bullseye" in a few months.

Everything needed to run the service is documented and stored in the infra and config repositories, there is no private data. A previous blog post discusses upcoming tasks. The planet@gnu.org contact point is now managed by GNU's Mailman instance. The DNS alias is managed by the FSF sysadmins.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

GNUnet News: GNUnet 0.14.1 released

Sat, 2021-04-03 18:00
GNUnet 0.14.1 released

Continuing to "release early / release often", we presentGNUnet 0.14.1. This is a bugfix release for gnunet 0.14.0.

Download links

The GPG key used to sign is: 3D11063C10F98D14BD24D1470B0998EF86F59B6A

Note that due to mirror synchronization, not all links may be functionalearly after the release. For direct access tryhttp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gnunet/

Noteworthy changes in 0.14.1 (since 0.14.0)
  • TNG: Various improvements to communicators. #6361,#5550
  • GNS: Use autogenerated records header file from GANA.
  • FS: Improve modularity of FS structs. #6743
  • SETU: Various improvements as part of the ongoing work on LSD0003.
  • IDENTITY: Fix wrong key construction for anonymous ECDSA identity.
  • RPS: Code cleanup mostly addressing warnings.
  • UTIL:
    • Added a Base32 en/decoded CLI gnunet-base32.
    • Use timeflakes as UUIDs. #6716
  • Buildsystem: Fix libunistring detection. #6485

A detailed list of changes can be found in the ChangeLog andthe 0.14.1 bugtracker.

Thanks

This release was the work of many people. The following people contributed code and were thus easily identified:Christian Grothoff, Florian Dold, t3sserakt, TheJackiMonster, Elias Summermatter, Julius Bünger and Thien-Thi Nguyen.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Christopher Allan Webber: The hurt of this moment, hopes for the future

Wed, 2021-03-31 14:42

Of the deeper thoughts I might give to this moment, I have given them elsewhere. For this blogpost, I just want to speak of feelings... feelings of hurt and hope.

I am reaching out, collecting the feelings of those I see around me, writing them in my mind's journal. Though I hold clear positions in this moment, there are few roots of feeling and emotion about the moment I feel I haven't steeped in myself at some time. Sometimes I tell this to friends, and they think maybe I am drifting from a mutual position, and this is painful for them. Perhaps they fear this could constitute or signal some kind of betrayal. I don't know what to say: I've been here too long to feel just one thing, even if I can commit to one position.

So I open my journal of feelings, and here I share some of the pages collecting the pain I see around me:

The irony of a movement wanting to be so logical and above feelings being drowned in them.

The feelings of those who found a comfortable and welcoming home in a world of loneliness, and the split between despondence and outrage for that unraveling.

The feelings of those who wanted to join that home too, but did not feel welcome.

The pent up feelings of those unheard for so long, uncorked and flowing.

The weight and shadow of a central person who seems to feel things so strongly but cannot, and does not care to learn to, understand the feelings of those around them.

I flip a few pages ahead. The pages are blank, and I interpret this as new chapters for us to write, together.

I hope we might re-discover the heart of our movement.

I hope we can find a place past the pain of the present, healing to build the future.

I hope we can build a new home, strong enough to serve us and keep us safe, but without the walls, moat, and throne of a fortress.

I hope we can be a movement that lives up to our claims: of justice, of freedom, of human rights, to bring these to everyone, especially those we haven't reached.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

Mike Gran: Guile Potluck 2021 Part 1: Genshou and Anguish

Mon, 2021-03-29 23:51
Preface

Guile Potluck 2021 was an event where hackers got to advertise their exciting new projects.  It wrapped up a few weeks ago, and at that time I was my intention to blog my way through the entrants right away.  Well, I have not been expedient on that front.
I'm so very sorry it has taken me so long to get back to Guile Potluck 2021.  Somewhere between family, kids, the day job, actually working on Guile, and the vague depression that quarantine seems to instill in me, it all got away from me.
But hey, let's see what we've got. I'll start from the end, and work my way back to the beginning.

Genshou, by Walter Lewis

https://git.sr.ht/~wklew/genshou

Here, wklew implements an extensible effects system, that allows stateful computations without any mutation.  Thought provoking stuff, especially if you like pondering monads, denotational semantics and other such things.

Honestly, it is projects like this that activate my impostor syndrome with regards to Scheme. Many Scheme hackers approach it from a deep interest in Computer Science, and mostly I look at their work in awe whilst carrying on with my second-hand understanding of programming that somehow I've built a career on.
 

Anguish, by Rutger van Beusekom

https://gitlab.com/rutger.van.beusekom/anguish
 


 

rutger.van.beusekom has written as parser for the POSIX sh language
using PEG grammar, which he hopes to convert into a full fledged shell
in future. At the moment, it converts shell statements into an SXML-like representation.

I am excited to see someone exercise Guile's PEG parser, which is both powerful and under-utilized.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

poke @ Savannah: [VIDEO] Hacking the BPF Type Format with GNU poke

Sun, 2021-03-28 22:24

I just uploaded the pilot test of what will be a series of videos indended to show how to use poke, writing pickles, and the like.  It is very improvised and I have never made a screencap/video of this kind before, so please bear with me ;)

https://youtu.be/n3ErUiLwFN4

Happy poking!

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

GNU Taler news: Why a Digital Euro should be Online-first and Bearer-based

Sun, 2021-03-28 18:00
2021-3: "Why a Digital Euro should be Online-first and Bearer-based" published

We are happy to announce the publication of our paper on "Why a Digital Euro should be Online-first and Bearer-based".

The European Central Bank’s “Report on a Digital Euro” considerstwo distinct types of designs for a digital euro. It argues that all functionalrequirements laid out in the report can be fulfilled by operating the two systemsin parallel:

  • A bearer-based digital euro based on trusted hardware that can be usedoffline, anonymously, and without third-party intervention.
  • An account-based digital euro that can be used online, is fully software-based and excludes the possibility of anonymity.
The report does not discuss other choices of hybrid systems. However, thechoice is more arbitrary than it might seem at first sight: bearer-based systemsare not necessarily offline payment systems, and online payment systems do notneed to exclude anonymity.

We argue that operating a bearer-based payment system to complement anaccount-based CBDC in order to gain offline and privacy features is not a goodtrade-off. Adding permanent, regular offline capabilities via the bearer-basedpayment instrument constantly exposes the CBDC to the severe issues inherentin offline-capable payment systems. Instead, the offline mode of operationshould be restricted to scenarios where it is actually required, which mitigatesthe risks.

Download links
Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

GNU Guix: Getting bytes to disk more quickly

Fri, 2021-03-26 10:00

Let’s face it: functional package managers like Guix provide unequaled support for reproducibility and transactional upgrades, but the price to pay is that users often spend a fair amount of time downloading (or building) packages. Download times are okay on day-to-day use but they’re a pain point when performing large upgrades or when installing Guix System for the first time.

With that in mind, it should come as no surprise that Michael Stapelberg’s excellent 2020 Arch Linux Conference talk and the installation speed achieved by distri were a great motivation boost. Michael proposes radical ideas to speed up package installation, such as downloading and mounting ready-to-use SquashFS images. Not everything can be transposed to Guix as-is, but it certainly got us thinking.

This article dives into improvements made over the last few months that will be in the upcoming 1.2.1 release, and which are already one guix pull away; they all contribute to making substitute download and installation “faster”. This is an evolution of the existing mechanisms rather than a revolution, but one that users will surely welcome.

Reducing latency

One of the first things we notice is latency between subsequent substitute downloads. It may sound ridiculous, but guix-daemon would spawn one helper process (running the internal guix substitute command) for each substitute download. That means that not only would it create a new process each time, it would also be unable to reuse connections to the substitute servers. This is particularly noticeable and wasteful when downloading many substitutes in a row, such as when installing Guix System for the first time.

The latency in between subsequent substitute downloads was primarily this: fork (creating a new process), TCP connection establishment and TLS connection handshake. When running perf timechart record guix build … (what a wonderful tool perf timechart is!), we get this Gantt diagram, which gives an idea of all the time wasted creating these processes, waiting for them to initialize and connect to the substitute server, and so on:

Why was it done this way? Because the daemon, written in C++ and inherited from Nix, would historically delegate substitution to helper programs, with a flexible but naive protocol between the daemon and those helper programs.

Back in December, we tackled this issue (followup): the daemon would now launch a single guix substitute process and reuse it for subsequent substitute downloads. In turn, guix substitute would cache connections so we save time on connection establishment.

Another observation we made is that guix-daemon implemented post-processing steps after each download that would contribute to latency. Once guix substitute had completed a download and extracted the archive to the store, the daemon would traverse this store item a couple of times to reset file timestamps/permissions (“metadata canonicalization”), to deduplicate files, and to verify the integrity of the whole store item. This is I/O-intensive and particularly wasteful for store items with many files. Our next step was to delegate all this work to guix substitute, which allows it to pipeline archive extraction, integrity checks, deduplication, and metadata canonicalization. All this happens as the bytes flow in and no extra traversal is needed.

The speedup offered by these optimizations depends on several factors, including the latency of your network, the speed of your CPU and that of your hard disk, and it grows with the number of substitutes fetched in a row. What we can say is that even in a “favorable” situation—low-latency network, fast CPU, fast storage device—it definitely feels snappier.

Increasing bandwidth

With the latency issue pretty much solved, the next step was to look at bandwidth. When we introduced lzip-compressed substitutes back in 2019, the assumption was that a much higher compression ratio (compared to gzip), would inevitably translate to faster downloads. That is true… but only for some bandwidth/CPU power configurations.

Specifically, it turns out that, for someone with a fast connection, such as fiber-to-the-home (FTTH), downloads of lzip-compressed substitutes are actually CPU-bound. In other words, the limiting factor is the processing time to decompress those lzip’d archives—not the available bandwidth. Lzip currently achieves the best compression ratios so far, and that’s great, but decompression is compute-intensive.

Ever-increasing bandwidth is what drove the design and implementation of newer compression methods, such as “Z standard”, colloquially known as “zstd”. The decompression speed of zstd is on the order of 3.5 higher than that of gzip and an order of magnitude higher than that of lzip; but unlike the venerable lzo, zstd achieves high compression ratios: at level 19, the compression ratio of zstd is lower than that of lzip but in the same ballpark. Guillaume Le Vaillant provided an insightful comparison of gzip, lzip, and zstd on a plot showing their decompression speed as a function of the compression ratio:

There are several takeaways. First, zstd decompression is always faster than the alternatives. Second, zstd compresses better than gzip starting from level 2, so gzip “loses” on both criteria. Last, zstd at level 19 achieves a compression ratio comparable to lzip level 5 or 6—lzip level 9 remains better in that regard.

With brand new Guile bindings to zstd, we were able to add zstd support to guix publish and guix substitute. But what policy should be adopted for the official substitute server at ci.guix.gnu.org?

Our goal is to maximize substitute download speed. In some configurations, for example on relatively slow connections, fetching lzip substitutes is not CPU-bound; in those cases, fetching lzip substitutes remains the fastest option. And of course, there are these other configurations where lzip decompression is the limiting factor, and where we’d rather fetch a slightly less compressed zstd substitute (or even a much less compressed gzip substitutes, sometimes).

The solution we came up with is a naive but efficient solution: client-side adaptive compression selection. When it fetches and decompresses a substitute, guix substitute monitors its CPU usage as reported by times. If the user time to wall-clock time ratio is close to one, that probably means the substitute fetch and decompression process was CPU-bound; in that case, choose a compression method that yields faster decompression next time—assuming the substitute server offers several options. Conversely, if CPU usage is close to zero, the process is probably network-bound, so next time we’ll choose a better-compressed option.

The official server at ci.guix.gnu.org now provides zstd-compressed substitutes in addition to lzip and gzip. An extra complication is that we cannot drop gzip compression just yet because pre-1.1.0 Guix installations understand nothing but gzip. To ease transition, the server will probably offer substitutes in all three compression formats for one more year or so.

There’s a good reason to upgrade your daemon though: you’ll be able to benefit from those zstd substitutes and if you have high bandwidth, you’ll quickly see the difference!

Grabbing substitutes from your neighbors

When it comes to increasing download speeds, another option is to download from your neighbors rather than from a server far away. This is particularly useful at the workplace, where machines around you are likely to already have the store items you’re looking for, or, say, at Guix gatherings—at least when we can meet physically again…

The idea had been floating around for some time as a direct benefit of reproducible builds and co-maintainer Mathieu Othacehe recently implemented it. As Mathieu explains in his blog post, guix publish can now advertise itself on the local network using the mDNS/DNS-SD protocol via Avahi; when guix-daemon is passed the --discover option, guix substitute automatically discovers local substitute servers and adds them as the preferred download location. The Guix System installation image even allows you to enable it to speed up the installation process:

Again, that only speeds things up if substitute servers use a compression method with fast decompression, and with either a cache or fast compression if they compress things on the fly. Zstd comes in handy for that: Guillaume’s measurements show that zstd compression is inexpensive at low compression levels, while achieving higher compression ratios than gzip.

Going further

Put together, these changes have the potential to noticeably improve user experience. But as I wrote in the introduction, it’s not revolutionary either—users still have to download all these things.

The next big step might come from fetching substitutes over peer-to-peer, content-addressed networks such as IPFS or GNUnet. Their content-addressed nature could allow users to download less. The performance characteristics of these networks is less clear though.

There is still value in a plain HTTP-based substitute protocol like the one currently used that is easy to set up, though. In that spirit, an option would be to “upgrade” the existing substitute protocol to take advantage of content-addressability. After all, the daemon already performs file-level deduplication and there’s a fair amount of identical files between subsequent builds of the same package. So… what if we only downloaded those files not already available locally? This idea is appealing but we need to go beyond the prototyping phase to get a better idea of its viability.

For completeness, another option currently investigated by the Nix developers is that of “content-addressed derivations”. While currently store file names contain a hash of the inputs used to produce them, the idea of content-addressed derivations is to make it a content hash; that way, if an input change has no effect on the build result, the output is the same and nothing needs to be re-downloaded (this is what Eelco Dolstra described as the intensional model in Chapter 6 of his seminal PhD thesis). This option is appealing, also for other reasons, but it’s a fundamental change with what looks like a high implementation complexity and transition cost. We have yet to gauge the pros and cons of following this approach.

Until then, we hope Guix 1.2.1 will bring your faster substitutes and happiness!

About GNU Guix

GNU Guix is a transactional package manager and an advanced distribution of the GNU system that respects user freedom. Guix can be used on top of any system running the Hurd or the Linux kernel, or it can be used as a standalone operating system distribution for i686, x86_64, ARMv7, and AArch64 machines.

In addition to standard package management features, Guix supports transactional upgrades and roll-backs, unprivileged package management, per-user profiles, and garbage collection. When used as a standalone GNU/Linux distribution, Guix offers a declarative, stateless approach to operating system configuration management. Guix is highly customizable and hackable through Guile programming interfaces and extensions to the Scheme language.

Categories: FLOSS Project Planets

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