Horizontal innovation networks- by and for users

TitleHorizontal innovation networks- by and for users
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2002
Authorsvon Hippel, E
Date PublishedJune

Innovation development, production, distribution and consumption networks can be built up horizontally with actors consisting only of innovation users. User innovation networks can function entirely independently of manufacturers when (1) at least some users have sufficient incentive to innovate, (2) at least some users have an incentive to voluntarily reveal their innovations, and (3) diffusion of innovations by users is low cost and can compete with commercial production and distribution. In this paper we explore the empirical evidence related to each of these matters and conclude that conditions favorable to user innovation networks are often present in the economy.

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