FLOSS Research

2017 Membership Drive: JOIN TODAY

Open Source Initiative - Thu, 2017-02-02 23:56


February, 3rd, 2017 marks the 19th anniversary of the OSI: Please join today

The OSI will launch our third annual Individual Membership Drive, coinciding with our 19th anniversary, Feb 3rd, 2017 and running through March 14th, 2017. Our membership drive goal is to sign up 2,398 members in celebration of our founding on 2/3/98 — "2,398 for 2/3/98" — see what we did there? :-) The membership drive will also run in parallel with our annual Board elections, with nominations opening on Feb 1st.

Please join as a new member today!

The Open Source Initiative® (OSI)
  • California 501(c)3 non-profit, raising awareness and adoption of open source software (OSS) through advocacy, education and building bridges between communities.
  • The pragmatic community organization that understands how developers, businesses, governments, and open source interact.
  • Steward of the Open Source Definition, globally recognized body for approving OSS licenses.
  • Protects and promotes open source software, development and communities.
  • Champions software freedom in society through education, collaboration, and infrastructure.
  • Prevents abuse of the ideals and ethos inherent to the open source movement.
  • See our about and history pages for more information.
Individual Membership

Membership provides several benefits to individuals, the OSI, and open source software. Only OSI Individual Members can vote for OSI Board Directors: they can even run for Director seats themselves. Individual Members are invited to join or create OSI sponsored Working Groups and Incubator Projects in various areas of open source advocacy and adoption. Individual Members are eligible for grants to attend conferences and meetings related to open source software on behalf of the OSI.

You can find out more about the benefits of becoming a Member of the Open Source Initiative and how to join, at: opensource.org/members

If we reach our goal of 2,398 new members, we’ll not only raise $95,920 to help us with our operations and community-based initiatives, we’ll also build an even stronger constituency to support our efforts to raise awareness about and adoption of not only the projects of our Affiliate members, but open source software, communities and development internationally.

Please support open source by joining today

Spreading the word

Please help spread the word about the OSI Individual Membership campaign, by posting about it, and encouraging your friends to join. Use the #for2398 hashtag when Tweeting.

Read more about the OSI 2014 Operational & Organizational Highlights, Community Engagement, Mission & Mandate, Sponsorship Opportunities, and how we use our funds, in our recently released Open Source Initiative 2015 Annual Report.

Categories: FLOSS Research

Update on San Francisco's Open Source Voting System!

Open Source Initiative - Thu, 2017-02-02 14:41

As many may know, the OSI has been involved in supporting the adoption of an open source elections system in San Francisco, California. The following is an update from Chris Jerdonek, Elections Commissioner & President of the San Francisco Elections Commission.

We'd like to thank Chris for all of his hard work in raising awareness of open source software and its value for elections as well as keeping all of us up to date on the latest developments. If you'd like to learn more about the project, please contact Chris directly.

Hello open source voting followers and fans!

This is the first 2017 update on San Francisco's project to develop and certify the country's first open source voting system! The last update from me was in early October.

Also, welcome to those who signed up in support of open source voting at last Wednesday's Reboot Democracy event in SoMa. After that event, the mailing list grew to nearly 200 recipients (almost all local to SF).

Since it has been several months since the last update, this will be a long post--you don't need to read it in one sitting. :)

(Also, a disclaimer: while I serve as a member of the San Francisco Elections Commission, I'm writing this update as an individual and not in my official capacity as a Commissioner.)

Main Action Item: Before getting into the nitty-gritty "newsletter" portion of my e-mail, please spread the word about the Department of Elections's upcoming open source voting RFP!

Within the next two or three months, the SF Department of Elections will be issuing an RFP for someone to lead the planning phase of the City's open source voting system project. The planning phase will need to be finished by January 2018 (i.e. a year from now, in time for next year's budget process). The City has allocated $300,000 towards this phase.

If you know anyone who might be interested in applying, please start spreading the word.

This project will be a great opportunity to have a meaningful impact on the world and to play a leadership role in something truly historic involving both technology and democracy. In my opinion, the ideal applicant is someone with a strong commitment to and background in open source (e.g. comes from the open source community) and has broad skills including both technical expertise as well as experience in project management. The person will need to work with stakeholders both inside and outside government -- and set the project up to succeed both technically and organizationally.

My understanding is that the role will be fillable by either a single person or a group of people, but applicants will need to comply with SF procurement rules, etc (so it would be good to start becoming familiar with those).

Now on to the newsletter...

SF Open Source Voting - February 2017 Update / Newsletter

  1. San Francisco RFP update
  2. Local Media / News coverage
  3. Reboot Democracy event
  4. SF Voting System Extension
  5. Commission Annual Report
  6. Future Commission Meetings

San Francisco RFP update

At last month's San Francisco Elections Commission meeting on Jan. 18, Director of Elections John Arntz gave the Commission his first written status update on the open source voting project. You can read that update at the following link (by clicking "Director's Report" and reading section A): http://sfgov.org/electionscommission/commission-agenda-packet-january-18-2017

Among other things, Director Arntz said that the RFP for the planning phase of the project "is expected to be issued within the next two to three months."

At the January meeting, after initial remarks by the Director, several Commissioners and members of the public (including myself) communicated strongly to the Director that the purpose of the planning phase should be to complete the groundwork needed to begin the actual development of the system. For those interested in hearing the full discussion, you can listen to the audio of the agenda item on YouTube here (the hyperlink points directly to the beginning of the agenda item -- agenda item #6, Director's Report, and related discussion bleeds into the following agenda item, item #7).

It's true that things seem off to a slow start (certainly slower than I had hoped). But the November election was a very busy time for the Department -- both leading up to Election Day and afterwards with the completion of the canvass. And this election was especially busy in San Francisco with a voter turnout of 80.7% in SF (as a percentage of registered voters).

The good news is that no elections are scheduled for 2017 in San Francisco, which means that the Director should have a lot more time this year to devote to open source voting. And the sooner the Director issues and awards the RFP, the sooner there will be a resource dedicated solely to working on this issue.

Local Media / News coverage

There has been some great media coverage of open source voting in San Francisco in the past few months. Here are a few examples:

Reboot Democracy event

Last Wednesday, Jan. 25, I was invited to speak about the SF open source voting effort at an inspiring, well-attended civic tech event in SoMa called "Reboot Democracy Reunion."

About 120 people attended, and more than 50 people signed up in support of the project after speaking. If you know any other events or people I should speak to, feel free to get in touch.

SF Voting System Extension

Starting on Oct. 17, 2016 and ending with the Mayor's signature on Jan. 20, 2017, the Mayor and Board of Supervisors approved an ordinance authorizing the Department of Elections to extend its current voting system contract with Dominion Voting Systems by two years.

The contract previously expired on Dec. 10, 2016. With the extension, it will expire on Dec. 31, 2018. This was necessary because the City has to have some voting system in place. The 2-year extension will be at a cost not to exceed ~$2.3 million. This will increase the cost of using the system over its nearly 10-year lifetime from $19.7 million to ~$22 million.

The per-election costs in the ordinance are 33% higher as compared with previous years, and the annual fees increased by 25%. These increases occurred despite the fact that the system is the same system that San Francisco first got 9 years ago in 2008, and despite the fact that the system might not be used in 2017 (because of no scheduled elections).

This latest voting system extension provides one more example of why developing an open source voting system would be beneficial to the City and other jurisdictions across the country. San Francisco had little choice here because of vendor lock-in and the proprietary nature of the system: jurisdictions have very little negotiating power when "locked in." With open source, the City would have much more freedom to choose a service provider because the system wouldn't be controlled by any one entity.

You can find more information about the voting system extension here (e.g. the legislative history, analyses, etc): https://sfgov.legistar.com/LegislationDetail.aspx?ID=2861447&GUID=2E15E282-D250-4191-A85D-361F27E8B6C8

One amendment the Supervisors added to the ordinance is that the Director of Elections needs to provide a written update and presentation to the Board of Supervisors during the FY 2017-18 and FY 2018-19 budget processes (i.e. sometime this spring and again next spring) on the status of implementing the open source voting system. This amendment is a good thing because it shows that the Board wants to see progress, and because it provides an opportunity for more publicity and transparency around the project (even more than in monthly Elections Commission meetings).

Elections Commission Annual Report

For those who would like to know more about the history of events in SF government around open source voting (especially those new to the issue), the Elections Commission's 2015 Annual Report (which I drafted and that the Commission passed) contains a lot of this information. It can be found at the top of this page: http://sfgov.org/electionscommission/commission-annual-reports

Future Commission Meetings

Finally, at the Elections Commission's last meeting on Jan. 18, several Commissioners expressed interested in having a "standing" agenda item on open source voting (i.e. an open source voting agenda item at every meeting). This would let the Commission discuss and take action on open source voting at any of its regular meetings, if necessary. The Commission meets every third Wednesday of the month at 6pm in Room 408 of SF City Hall.

The Commission's Budget and Oversight of Public Elections Committee (BOPEC) also has open source voting on the agenda of its meeting later today. BOPEC meets the first Wednesday of every month at 6pm in Room 421 of City Hall (though their meetings are sometimes canceled since the meeting isn't always necessary).

It would be great for members of the public to come by and give public comment in support of open source voting at any of these meetings (and especially the full Commission meetings when more Commissioners are present).

Thanks for reading and for your continued interest and support!

Best,
--Chris

Categories: FLOSS Research

OSI Board of Directors Call for Nominations

Open Source Initiative - Wed, 2017-02-01 11:13



The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is pleased to announce our 2017 election and seeks your nominations for candidates to serve on the OSI Board of Directors. This year, 2017, three (3) Individual Members seats are open, and one (1) Affiliate Member seat.

The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is managed by a member-elected Board of Directors that is the ultimate authority responsible for the organization as a California public benefit corporation, with 501(c)3 tax-exempt status. The Board's responsibilities include oversight of the organization, including its operations, staff and budget; setting strategic direction and defining goals in line with the mission, and; serving the community through committees and working groups. The eleven person Board is composed of Directors elected by OSI Individual Members (5) and Affiliate Members (5). The General Manager of the OSI also serves on the Board as a Director (ex officio). The results of elections for both Individual and Affiliate Member Board seats are advisory with the OSI Board making the formal appointments to open seats based on the community's votes. Further details can be found at: https://opensource.org/elections

Call for nominations and important dates.

  • January 1, 2017: Election announcements for individual and affiliate seats
  • February 1, 2017: Nominations open
  • February 15, 2017: Nominations close (Candidates' platform is required upon nomination)
  • February 15 - 28, 2017: Meet the candidates
  • March 1, 2017: Voting opens
  • March 14, 2017 (midnight PST): Voting closes
  • March 15 - 21, 2017: Run-off elections (if needed)
  • March 29, 2017: Board ratifies vote
  • April 1, 2017: Elected members take seats
ELIGIBILITY

The 2017 elections will elect Board of Directors for three (3) Individual Member seats and one (1) Affiliate Member seat. No Board Director who has served for six consecutive years is eligible for re-election until a year has elapsed.

REPRESENTATION

The representation of the board is as follows:

  • Five Directors of the Board are appointed based on the voting of Individual Members (2 year term, maximum 3 consecutive terms)
  • Five Directors of the Board are appointed based on the voting of Affiliate Members' votes (3 year term, maximum 2 consecutive terms)
  • One Director of the Board will be dedicated to the General Manager, ex officio (term to last length of employment)
ELECTION PROCESS

Nominations

Only current OSI Individual Members may run for an Individual Member seat on the Board (learn more about joining the OSI as an Individual Member: https://opensource.org/members), however those running for an Affiliate seat on the Board need not be an Individual Member. Those interested in running for an Individual Member seat do not need to be nominated and may run by simply completing the candidate information. Those interested in running for an Affiliate Member Board seat must be nominated by a current OSI Affiliate organization.

Standing for election is extremely easy. Current Individual Members who would like to run for an Individual Member seat can simply send a contact request, selecting the category “Candidate Nomination” via the OSI contact form (http://opensource.org/contact).

Current Affiliate Members may send their nominations for Affiliate Member seats to the OSI via the OSI contact form (https://opensource.org/contact). Please select the “Candidate Nomination” category on the form. Once we receive your request, we will promptly send you back information to create your election profile. Current election eligibility policy can be found here in the OSI Bylaws, Article V, Sections 3 – 5 (https://opensource.org/bylaws).

Voting

Voting in OSI elections is open to all Individual Members and the OSI Representative of each Affiliate Member. Only Individual Members may vote in the election of Individual Member seats. Only Affiliate Member Representatives may vote in the election of Affiliate Member seats. Only one vote per Affiliate Member, as submitted by the Affiliate Representative will be counted in the election of an Affiliate seat. Elections for OSI Directors are held according to Approval Voting. Approval voting is a single-winner voting method used for elections. Each voter may "approve" of (i.e., select) any number of candidates. The winner is the most-approved candidate (see Wikipedia for more information on Approval Voting: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Approval_voting).

Voting for all elections is done online using Helios Voting (https://heliosvoting.org). When elections are held, OSI current and lifelong Individual Members and the Affiliate Members' Representative receive email notifications with instructions on how to access the online voting systems, instructions on how to complete their vote, and a list of the candidates with further information about them and their interests/qualifications.

Categories: FLOSS Research

Thank you, ...we’re not there yet.

Open Source Initiative - Mon, 2016-12-26 16:23

“Not there yet...” that phrase actually highlights where we are with several important initiatives here at the OSI and even with open source software broadly.

First, and most pressing for us today, we’re not there yet in our fund raising goals for 2016, and we’re asking those working with open source software—those who not only understand the technical merits, but value open principles—to contribute and help fund our ongoing work.

“Not there yet,” also applies to the status of software freedom. While we now hear “every company is a software company,” and “open source is eating the software world” from a practical standpoint, we still have a lot of work in front of us to increase the adoption of open source software in industries beyond the technology sector: in local and national governments, in primary and secondary educational institutions, and even with individual developers and users who have yet to discover the benefits of open source software. But from a broader perspective, the increasing interest in open source software is raising new issues that challenge the ideals and values of software freedom that we in the open source software movement have worked so hard to develop and share: collaboration, authenticity, transparency, and even the criteria that define open source software licenses.

What will get us there...

The OSI has several initiatives underway (and several others proposed) that we know you’ll find inspiring, think are important to the open source movement, and worthy of your contribution. Your donations will...

Assist those new to open source attend and speak at community events: We need to raise $5,000 to launch the OSI’s Diversity Speakers Travel Fund which will help those who have not been able to participate in conferences, community events, meet-ups, etc. due to cost. That new project’s inspiring founder, the creative and collaborative developer, or a local innovator all deserve an international audience—especially if they’re part of an underrepresented community—and with our help, we can promote their good work to enhance the broader open source movement.

Introduce open source software to primary/elementary students: Our FLOSS Desktops for Kids is growing with interest from New York State Public Schools, Siena College, California Boys and Girls Clubs, and several other children’s organizations. We’re looking for $10,000 to support staff, help train teachers and volunteers, and prepare and deliver the FLOSS program. The initiative introduces children to open source software through hands-on activities, refurbishing decommissioned laptops and desktops, and we need your help.

Reduce barriers in organizing new open source projects: Responding to a call from the open source community after several projects were denied non-profit status, the OSI is working to understand how the IRS position toward FLOSS organizations has changed, how these changes affect new and existing FLOSS nonprofits, and what alternatives to independent tax-exempt status are available to new projects. Along with Software Freedom Conservancy and Mozilla, we’re hoping to raise $2,500 to help open source projects organize and operate while improving government’s understanding of open source software and communities.

Expose those who abuse the open source label and community: Each year we discover more and more disingenuous organizations that promise open source software, yet do not release their work under an OSI approved open source license, risking our software freedom, or, promise the ideals of open source software but in fact only use the label to promote their proprietary interests. We want to raise $2,500 to develop a system to verify claims of open source licensing made through crowd-funding efforts.

No, we’re not there yet, but we hope you will help us get there. Please make your tax-deductible donation today and help promote and protect open source software.

Categories: FLOSS Research

'Tis The Season...

Open Source Initiative - Thu, 2016-12-15 12:14

This year you're probably inundated with requests for financial support from a variety of very worthy causes, including many from open source software projects, and other organizations working to promote software freedom. Indeed we here at the OSI are running our own end-of-the-year fund raiser, and we hope you will contribute.

However we also want to make you aware of the many other opportunities to support open source software projects and the communities that support them, specifically among our Affiliate Members. We're all working toward the same goals, and we hope you will be as generous as possible in recognition of the many people, and all the time they commit to bring you the high quality software that powers your computers, devices, businesses, governments, schools, and communities.

Please find below a few quick links to all of the OSI Affiliate Members' donations pages. As an OSI Affiliate, we've ensured each is a non-profit organization and, depending on your location, your contribution may be tax-deductible: "Many donations make all bugs shallow".

Thank you for your support or the Open Source Initiative and the open source software.

If you're an OSI Affiliate Member, and not listed here, let us know

Happy Holidays,
The OSI Board of Directors

Categories: FLOSS Research

Kicking off the 2016 End-of-Year Fundraiser

Open Source Initiative - Wed, 2016-11-23 07:08

Thanks to a single staff member, ten volunteer board members, and dozens of interns, volunteers, and members, the Open Source Initiative (OSI) protects and promotes open source software, development and communities, championing software freedom in society through education, collaboration, and infrastructure, stewarding the Open Source Definition, and preventing abuse of the ideals and ethos inherent to the open source movement. Although primarily known for our role in certifying open source licenses, today OSI's mandate includes, fiscal sponsorships for emerging projects, hosting of open source working groups, and cross-discipline community building, all in an effort to extend the reach of open source in education, government, nonprofits, and business. In order to move forward with our work, we are asking members and open source contributors and enthusiasts to take the next step and donate to the OSI. Join us in our work for the next year by donating to the OSI today!

Licensing
With the help of community input, we approved two new open source licenses, OSET and UPL, as well as coordinated efforts to translate licenses into French. We expanded our licensing work through creating Open Standards Requirements for Software, creating guidelines for what it means to be an open standard within the realm of software. We also released the Open Source License API.

Advocacy
As stewards of the Open Source Definition and a standards setting organization, we work with organizations to ensure best practices and help foster the identity of being a good Open Source Citizen. Recent successes in this include:

    Government:
    • Support and promotion, with adoption, for the development of open source elections software within the City and County of San Francisco.
    • The United States passed a Federal Open Source Code policy. The OSI participated in a round-table discussion and was invited to advise during the policy creation process by the White House Office of Management and Budget.
    • Board member Paul Tagliomonte testified on behalf of the OSI concerning two bills proposed in New York City: Int. 0365-2014 and Int. 0366-2014. Int. 0365-2014 requires transparency of City purchasing, and Int. 0366-2014 calls for not just showing preference towards open source technology during procurement, but to also minimize the procurement of proprietary software.

Working Groups
The activities of working groups continue to grow. Currently, there are twelve working groups housed within the OSI, including resources for new and existing FLOSS projects and IRS tax regulations, support for open source startups, hackathons, and multiple education projects.

Outreach
In May of 2016, we partnered with the Apereo Foundation to organize the Open Summit, a celebration and exploration of open education and the role open source plays in education.

Not to mention keynotes, talks, and panels OSI Board members participated in during 2016, the OSI was present at the following conference:

  • Community Leadership Summit
  • Educause
  • FOSETCON
  • OSCON
  • OSCON Europe
  • Paris Open Source Summit

Membership
Over the course of 2016 we received financial support from over 25 organizations and companies. Sponsor organizations are valuable to the OSI, but they are not members of the organization—they don’t have voting rights. This enables us to better focus on directing our work in directions that benefit the entire open source community, rather than just corporate interests.

Our list of Affiliate Members spans Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America, and the Indian subcontinent. In addition to a range of non-profits and open source projects, we have a number of education institutions who have joined us over this past year.

Protecting Open Source
The Open Source trademark is now recognized in nine global regions and countries. This helps us make sure that things labeled “open source” meet the standards expected of open source. Our globally recognized logo makes it so you can quickly identify open source products and projects.

On more than 20 occasions we either found or were alerted to the misuse of the term Open Source, at which point we contacted the individuals or organizations and worked with them to better comply and meet open source ideals and best practices.

Thanks and Future Goals
We recently held a board meeting, during which we discussed what we accomplished over the past year, and our goals for the upcoming. In addition to continuing to support the organizations for which we provide fiscal sponsorship, working groups, and licensing efforts, we hope to expand our efforts in education, provide better resources for governments interested in incorporating open source in development and procurement, and provide more opportunities for individual and affiliate members to get involved with the OSI, our efforts, and one another.

It is only thanks to members, donors, and supporters of the OSI we were able to carry out all of the work we accomplished in 2016. In addition to the above, we provided necessary fiscal sponsorship for small open source projects. Your funding helped us redo our website, travel for outreach opportunities, and best fight for open source all over the world.

We are proud of our work from 2016, and need to push even harder in 2017. We’re asking you to take your open source contributions to the next level by donating to the OSI. We can work together to work for open source.

Categories: FLOSS Research

Bicho 0.9 is comming soon!

LibreSoft Planet - Thu, 2011-06-09 09:06

During last months we’ve been working to improve Bicho, one of our data mining tools. Bicho gets information from remote bug/issue tracking systems and store them in a relational database.

Bicho

 

The next release of Bicho 0.9 will also include incremental support, which is something we’ve missed for flossmetrics and for standalone studies with a huge amount of bugs. We also expect that more backends will be created easily with the improved backend model created by Santi Dueñas. So far we support JIRA, Bugzilla and Sourceforge. For the first two ones we parse HTML + XML, for sourceforge all we have is HTML so we are more dependent from the layout (to minimize that problem we use BeautifulSoup). We plan to include at least backends for FusionForge and Mantis (which is partially written) during this year.

Bicho is being used currently in the ALERT project (still in the first months) where all the information offered by the bug/issue reports will be related to the information available in the source code repositories (using CVSAnaly) through semantic analysis. That relationship will allow us to help developers through recommendations and other more pro-active use cases. One of my favorites is to recommend a developer to fix a bug through the analysis of the stacktraces posted in a bug. In libre software projects all the information is available in the internet, the main problem (not a trival one) is that it is available in very different resources. Using bicho against the bts/its we can get the part of the code (function name, class and file) that probably contains the error and the version of the application. That information can be related to the one got from the source code repository with cvsanaly, in this case we would need to find out who is the developer that edit that part of the code more often. This and other uses cases are being defined in the ALERT project.

If you want to stay tunned to Bicho have a look at the project page at http://projects.libresoft.es/projects/bicho/wiki or the mailing list libresoft-tools-devel _at__ lists.morfeo-project.org

 

Categories: FLOSS Research

ARviewer, PhoneGap and Android

LibreSoft Planet - Thu, 2011-06-09 04:44
ARviewer is a FLOSS mobile augmented reality browser and editor that you can easily integrate in your own Android applications. This version has been developed using PhoneGap Framework. The browser part of ARviewer draws the label associated with an object of the reality using as parameters both its A-GPS position and its altitude. The system works both outdoors and indoors in this latest case with location provided by QR-codes. ARviewer labels can be shown through a traditional list based view or through an AR view a magic lens mobile augmented reality UI.    The next steps are: 
  • Testing this source code in IOS platform to check the real portability that phoneGap provide us.
  • We plan to add the “tagging mode” with phoneGap to allow tag new nodes/objetcs from the mobile. 
  Are very very similar the next images, right? We only have found a critical problem with the refresh of nodes in the WebView using PhoneGap. We will study and analyze this behavior.  

ARviewer PhoneGap

 

ARviewer Android (native)

  More info: http://www.libregeosocial.org/node/24  Source Code: http://git.libresoft.es/ARviewer-phoneGap/  Android Market: http://market.android.com/details?id=com.libresoft.arviewer.phonegap
Categories: FLOSS Research

Finding code clones between two libre software projects

LibreSoft Planet - Thu, 2011-05-12 08:05

Last month I’ve been working in the creation of a report with the aim of finding out code clones between two libre software projects. The method we used was basically the one that was detailed in the paper Code siblings: Technical and Legal Implications by German, D., Di Penta M., Gueheneuc Y. and Antoniol, G.

It is an interesting case and I’m pretty sure this kind of reports will be more and more interesting for entities that publish code using a libre software license. Imagine you are part of a big libre software project and your copyright and even money is there, it would be very useful to you knowing whether a project is using your code and respecting your copyright and the rights you gave to the users with the license. With the aim of identifying these scenarios we did in our study the following:

  • extraction of clones with CCFinderX
  • detection of license with Ninka
  • detection of the copyright with shell scripts

The CCFinderX tool used in the first phase gives you information about common parts of the code, it detects a common set of tokens (by default it is 50) between two files, this parameter should be changed depending on what it is being looked for. In the following example the second and third column contain information about the file and the common code. The syntax is (id of the file).(source file tokens) so the example shows that the file with id 1974 contains common code with files with id 11, 13 and 14.

...
clone_pairs {
19108 11.85-139 1974.70-124
19108 13.156-210 1974.70-124
19108 14.260-314 1974.70-124
12065 17.1239-1306 2033.118-185
12065 17.1239-1306 2033.185-252
12065 17.1239-1306 2033.252-319
12065 17.1239-1306 2141.319-386
...

In the report we did we only wanted to estimate the percent of code used from the “original” project in the derivative work, but there are some variables that are necessary to take into account. First, code clones can appear among the files of the same project (btw this is clear sign of needing refactorization). Second, different parts of a file can have clones in different files (a 1:n relationship) in both projects. The ideal solution would be to study file by file the relationship with others and to remove the repeated ones.

Once the relationship among files is created is the turn of the license and copyright detection. In this phase the method just compares the output of the two detectors and finally you get a matrix where it is possible to detect whether the copyright holders were respected and the license was correctly used.

Daniel German’s team found interesting things in their study of the FreeBSD and Linux kernels. They found GPL code in FreeBSD in the xfs file system. The trick to distribute this code under a BSD license is to distribute it disabled (is not compiled into FreeBSD) and let the user the election of compiling it or not. If a developer compiles the kernel with xfs support, the resulting kernel must be distributed under the terms of the GPLx licence.

Categories: FLOSS Research

OpenBSD 4.9 incorpora el sistema /etc/rc.d

LibreSoft Planet - Wed, 2011-05-04 16:23
Algo de historia  

Como cualquier administrador de sistemas Unix sabe, init es el primer proceso en ejecución tras la carga del kernel, y da inicio a los demonios ("servicios") estándar del sistema. En el Unix original de Bell Labs, el proceso init arrancaba los servicios de userland mediante un único script de shell denominado /etc/rc. La Distribución de Berkeley añadió años después otro script denominado /etc/rc.local para arrancar otros servicios. 

Esto funcionó así durante años, hasta que Unix se fue fragmentando y, con la aparición del software empaquetado de terceros, la versión System V del Unix de AT&T introdujo un nuevo esquema de directorios en /etc/rc.d/ que contenía scripts de arranque/parada de servicios, ordenados por orden de arranque, con una letra-clave delante del nombre de fichero (S- arrancar servicios y K- detener el servicio). Por ejemplo: S19mysql inicia [S] el servicio mysql. Estos scripts (situados en /etc/init.d) se distribuyeron en niveles de ejecución (runlevels, descritos en /etc/inittab), asociando los scripts con enlaces simbólicos en cada nivel de ejecución (/etc/rc0.d, rc1.d, rc2.d, etc.). Los niveles de ejecución en cada directorio representan la parada, el reinicio, arranque en monousuario o multiusuario, etc. Este esquema, conocido como "System V" (o "SysV"), es, por ejemplo, el que adoptaron las distribuciones de Linux (con algunas diferencias entre ellas en cuanto a la ubicación de subdirectorios y scripts). Tenía la ventaja de evitar el peligro de que cualquier error de sintaxis introducido por un paquete pudiera abortar la ejecución del único script y por tanto dejar el sistema en un estado inconsistente. A cambio, introdujo cierto grado de complejidad en la gestión y mantenimiento de scripts de inicio, directorios, enlaces simbólicos, etc. 

Otros sistemas de tipo Unix, como los BSD, mantuvieron el esquema tradicional y simple de Unix, con solo uno o dos únicos ficheros rc y sin niveles de ejecución[*], si bien fueron incorporando algunos otros aspectos del esquema SysV de inicialización de los servicios del sistema. Por ejemplo, NetBSD incluyó un sistema de inicio System V similar al de Linux, con scripts individuales para controlar servicios, pero sin runlevels. FreeBSD, a su vez, integró en 2002 el sistema rc.d de NetBSD y actualmente cuenta con decenas de demonios de inicio que funcionan de forma análoga a SysV: 

$ /etc/rc.d/sshd restart

 

OpenBSD incorpora /etc/rc.d

 

OpenBSD, sin embargo, no había adoptado hasta ahora el subsistema de scripts individuales para controlar los servicios, lo que a veces causaba cierto pánico, como si les faltase algo esencial, a quienes desde el mundo Linux (u otros Unices)

entraban por primera vez en contacto con este sistema (aunque luego la cosa tampoco era tan grave, es cuestión de hábitos). La actual versión OpenBSD 4.8, publicada en noviembre de 2010, todavía utiliza únicamente dos scripts de inicio (/etc/rc y /etc/rc.local). En OpenBSD 4.9, que se publicará el próximo 1 de mayo, se ha implementado por primera vez esta funcionalidad mediante el directorio /etc/rc.d

Como suele ser habitual en OpenBSD, no se implementa algo hasta que se está seguro que se gana algo y que hay un modo sencillo y fiable de utilizarlo para el usuario final. El mecanismo es análogo al de otros sistemas de tipo Unix, pero más sencillo y con algunas sutiles e importantes diferencias que vale la pena conocer. Veámoslo. 


Descripción del nuevo subsistema /etc/rc.d de OpenBSD  

En /etc/rc.conf (donde se incluye las variables de configuración para el script rc)  nos encontraremos una nueva variable denominada rc_scripts: 

# rc.d(8) daemons scripts # started in the specified order and stopped in reverse order rc_scripts=

Incluimos en esa variable (o mejor, como se recomienda siempre, en /etc/rc.conf.local, un fichero opcional que sobreescribe las variables de /etc/rc.conf) los demonios que deseamos arrancar de inicio, por orden de arranque:

rc_scripts="dbus_daemon mysql apache2 freshclam clamd cupsd"

Los scripts de inicio de servicios residirán, como suele ser habitual, en el directorio /etc/rc.d. Pero una diferencia clave es que, aunque los scripts estén ahí situados, no arrancará nada automáticamente que no esté listado en la variable rc_scripts, siguiendo el principio de OpenBSD de evitar presumir automatismos predeterminados. Cada script responderá a las siguientes acciones:

  • start    Arranca el servicio si no está ya corriendo.
  • stop     Detiene el servicio.
  • reload   Ordena al demonio que recargue su configuración.
  • restart  Ejecuta una parada del demonio (stop), y a continuación lo inicia (start).
  • check    Devuelve 0 si el demonio está corriendo o 1 en caso contrario. 

Actualmente, este sistema solo se usa para demonios instalados desde paquetes, no para el sistema base de OpenBSD. Por ejemplo, para gestionar los estados del servicio "foobar", que habremos antes instalado desde ports o paquetes, basta ejecutar:

/etc/rc.d/foobar reload /etc/rc.d/foobar restart /etc/rc.d/foobar check /etc/rc.d/foobar stop

La última orden ("stop") se invoca también en un reinicio (reboot) o parada (shutdown) desde /etc/rc.shutdown, en orden inverso al que aparece en la variable en rc_scripts, antes de que se ejecute la orden "stop/reboot" para todo el sistema. No es necesario preocuparse por el orden de ejecución o por el significado de S17 al comienzo del nombre de los scripts.

Otra ventaja de esta implementación es lo extraordinariamente sencillos que es escribir esos scripts, frente a otras implementaciones que precisan scripts de decenas o incluso cientos de líneas. En su forma más simple:

daemon="/usr/local/sbin/foobard" . /etc/rc.d/rc.subr rc_cmd $1

Un ejemplo algo más complejo:

#!/bin/sh # # $OpenBSD: specialtopics.html,v 1.15 2011/03/21 21:37:38 ajacoutot Exp $ daemon="${TRUEPREFIX}/sbin/munin-node" . /etc/rc.d/rc.subr pexp="perl: ${daemon}" rc_pre() { install -d -o _munin /var/run/munin } rc_cmd $1

Como puede observarse, el script típico solo necesita definir el demonio, incluir /etc/rc.d/rc.subr y opcionalmente definir una expresión regular diferente a la predeterminada para pasársela a pkill(1) y pueda encontrar el proceso deseado (la expresión por defecto es "${daemon} ${daemon_flags}").

El nuevo script debe colocarse en ${PKGDIR} con extensión .rc, por ejemplo foobard.rc. TRUEPREFIX se sustituirá automáticamente en el momento de instalarlo.

La sencillez y limpieza es posible gracias al subsistema rc.subr(8), un script que contiene las rutinas internas y la lógica más compleja para controlar los demonios. Así y todo, es muy legible y contiene menos de 100 líneas. Existe también una plantilla para los desarrolladores de paquetes y ports que se distribuye en "/usr/ports/infrastructure/templates/rc.template".

Y eso es todo. Cualquier "port" o paquete que necesite instalar un demonio puede beneficiarse ahora de los scripts rc.d(8). Quizá el nuevo sistema no cubra todos los supuestos, pero cubre las necesidades de los desarrolladores de ports para mantener un sistema estándar y sencillo para arrancar servicios). En marzo de 2011, ya hay más de 90 ports de los más usados que los han implementado. Por supuesto, el viejo sistema sigue funcionando en paquetes no convertidos, pero es indudable que los desarrolladores de OpenBSD (especial mención para Antoine Jacuotot (jacuotot@) y Robert Nagy (robert@)) han logrado una vez más un buen balance entre simplicidad y funcionalidad. Por supuesto, para ampliar detalles, nunca debe eludirse leer las páginas correspondientes del manual: rc.subr(8), rc.d(8), rc.conf(8) y rc.conf.local(8) y la documentación web


Referencias


(*) Que BSD no implemente "/etc/inittab" o "telinit" no significa que no tenga niveles de ejecución (runlevels), simplemente es capaz de cambiar sus estados de inicio mediante otros procedimientos, sin necesidad de "/etc/inittab".

 
Categories: FLOSS Research

Brief study of the Android community

LibreSoft Planet - Mon, 2011-04-18 11:19

Libre software is changing the way applications are built by companies, while the traditional software development model does not pay attention to external contributions, libre software products developed by companies benefit from them. These external contributions are promoted creating communities around the project and will help the company to create a superior product with a lower cost than possible for traditional competitors. The company in exchange offers the product free to use under a libre software license.

Android is one of these products, it was created by Google a couple of years ago and it follows a single vendor strategy. As Dirk Riehle introduced some time ago it is a kind of a economic paradox that a company can earn money making its product available for free as open source. But companies are not NGOs, they don't give away money without expecting something in return, so where is the trick?

As a libre software project Android did not start from scratch, it uses software that would be unavailable for non-libre projects. Besides that, it has a community of external stakeholders that improve and test the latest version published, help to create new features and fix errors. It is true that Android is not a project driven by a community but driven by a single vendor, and Google does it in a very restricted way. For instance external developers have to sign a Grant of Copyright License and they do not even have a roadmap, Google publish the code after every release so there are big intervals of time where external developers do not have access to the latest code. Even with these barriers there are a significant part of the code that is being provided from external people, it is done directly for the project or reused from common dependencies (GIT provides ways to reuse changes done to remote repositories).


The figures above reflect the monthly number of commits done by people split up in two, in green colour commits from mail domains google.com or android.com, the study assumes that these persons are Google employees. On the other hand in grey colour the rest of commits done by other mail domains, these ones belong to different companies or volunteers.

According to the first figure (on the left), which shows the proportion of commits, during the first months that were very active (March and April 2009) the number of commits from external contributors was similar to the commits done by Google staff. The number of external commits is also big in October 2009, when the total amount of commits reached its maximum. Since April 2009 the monthly activity of the external contributors seems to be between 10% and 15%.

The figure on the left provides a interesting view of the total activity per month, two very interesting facts here: the highest peak of development was reached during late 2009 (more than 8K commits per month during two months). The second is the activity during the last months, as it was mentioned before the Google staff work in private repositories so until they publish the next version of Android, we won't see another peak of development (take into account that commits in GIT will modify the history when the code is published, thus the last months in the timeline will be overwritten during the next release)


More than 10% of the commits used by Google in Android were committed using mail domains different to google.com or android.com. At this point the question is: who did it?

(Since October 2008) # Commits Domain 69297 google.com 22786 android.com 8815 (NULL) 1000 gmail.com 762 nokia.com 576 motorola.com 485 myriadgroup.com 470 sekiwake.mtv.corp.google.com 422 holtmann.org 335 src.gnome.org 298 openbossa.org 243 sonyericsson.com 152 intel.com



Having a look at the name of the domains, it is very surprising that Nokia is one of the most active contributors. This is a real paradox, the company that states that Android is its main competition helps it!. One of the effects of using libre software licenses for your work is that even your competition can use your code, currently there are Nokia commits in the following repositories:

  • git://android.git.kernel.org/platform/external/dbus
  • git://android.git.kernel.org/platform/external/bluetooth/bluez


This study is a ongoing process that should become a scientific paper, if you have feedback please let us know.



CVSAnalY was used to get data from 171 GIT repositories (the Linux kernel was not included). Our tool allow us to store the metadata of all the repositories in one SQL database, which helped a lot. The study assumes that people working for Google use a domain @google.com or @android.com.

 

References:

Categories: FLOSS Research

AR interface in Android using phoneGap

LibreSoft Planet - Tue, 2011-03-29 05:51

Since 6 months ago we have evaluated the possibility to implement a new AR interface (based in our project ARviewer) using phoneGap. phoneGap is a mobile framework based in HTML5/JS that allow execute the same source code HTML5 in differents mobile platforms (iphone, android, blackberry). It seem a good way to create portable source code. Since 3 years ago I work in this project with Raúl Román, a crack coder!!

Currently using phoneGap is not possible obtain the stream camera in the webView widget. So, this part of the source code must be developed in the native platform. We find another problem. We could not put the webview transparent so it would look the camera in the background, and paint objects on top with HTML. In this case, we asked for this to David A. Lareo (Bcultura) and Julio Rabadán (Somms.net) and gave us some very interesting clues about this problem.

The solution is implemented in the source code that you can see below. It's necessary that our main view (R.layout.main) is the main view, for this we do 'setContentView' and later we add the main view of 'DroidGap' using 'addview' and 'getParent'. Once we have our view mixed with phonegap main view, we set the backgroundColor transparent.

@Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); super.init(); super.loadUrl("file:///android_asset/www/index.html"); setContentView(R.layout.main); RelativeLayout view = (RelativeLayout) findViewById(R.id.main_container); // appView is the WebView object View html = (View)appView.getParent(); html.setBackgroundColor(Color.TRANSPARENT); view.addView (html, new LayoutParams(LayoutParams.FILL_PARENT, LayoutParams.FILL_PARENT)); appView.setBackgroundColor(Color.TRANSPARENT); }  

  Currently, we have started this project so I will post the full source code in this blog
Categories: FLOSS Research

Amarok Code Swarm

Paul Adams: Green Eggs and Ham - Fri, 2009-08-21 05:52

In my previous entry it was commented that it would be nice to see a code swarm for Amarok's history in SVN. Well... go on then.

Code Swarm is a tool which gives a time-based visualisation of activity in SVN. Whilst code swarm are often very pretty and fun to look at for 15 minutes, they are not very informative. Much of what appears is meaningless (e.g. the entry point of the particles) and some of it is ambiguous (e.g. the movement of particles).

Anyhow, I was surprised to see that someone hadn't already made one of these for Amarok. So, here it is:

Amarok Code Swarm from Paul Adams on Vimeo.

Categories: FLOSS Research

Amarok's SVN History - Community Network

Paul Adams: Green Eggs and Ham - Thu, 2009-08-20 08:08

I did not include a "who has worked with whom" community network graph in my previous post on the history of Amarok in SVN. This was largely because that blog post was written quite late and I didn't want to wait ages for the community network graph to be generated.

Well, now I have created it.


Click here for the complete, 8.1MB, 5111x3797 version

So, just to remind you... SVN accounts are linked if they have both worked on the same artifact at some point. The more artifacts they share, the closer together the SVN accounts are placed. The result of this is that the "core" community should appear closer to the middle of the graph.

Categories: FLOSS Research

Amarok's SVN History

Paul Adams: Green Eggs and Ham - Tue, 2009-08-18 16:25

So, as you might have recently seen, Amarok has now moved out of SVN. This was SVN r1002747 on 2009-07-26. Amarok first appeared in /trunk/kdeextragear-1/amarok on 2003-09-07 (r249141) thanks to an import from markey. It was migrated the to simplified extragear structure (/trunk/extragear/multimedia/amarok) at r409209 on 2005-05-04.

So, to mark this event I have created a green blob chart and a plot of daily commits and committers for the entire time Amarok was in SVN.

Simply right-click and download the green blobs to see them in their full-scale glory. I'm sorry the plot isn't too readable. It is caused by a recent day where there appears to be about 300 commits in Amarok; way above the average. I assume this is scripty gone mad again.

Categories: FLOSS Research

Archiving KDE Community Data

Paul Adams: Green Eggs and Ham - Sun, 2009-08-16 07:23

So me and my number crunching have been quiet for a couple of months now. Since handing in my thesis I have been busier than ever. One of the things keeping me busy has been to make good on a promise I made a while back...

I have, for some time, promised to create a historical archive of how KDE "looked" in the past. To achieve this I have created SVN logs for each calendar month of KDE's history and ran various scripts that I have against them. Here's a few examples for August 1998....

Community Network

A community network graph is a representation of who was working with whom in the given month. You may remember that I have shown these off once or twice before. The nodes are SVN accounts and they share an edge when they have shared an artefact in SVN. The more artefacts that the pair have shared, the closer they are placed together. The result is that the community's more central contributors should appear towards the middle of the plot.

Your browser does not support SVG.

The Green Blobs

Yes, they're back! For the uninitiated the green blobs are representation of who committed in a given week. Read the chart from top to bottom and left to right. The date of the first commit and the % of weeks used are also given.

Commits and Committers

I have also gathered basic number of commits and committers per day and created plots, like this...

Your browser does not support SVG. So, I now have a few things to do:
  • Firstly, I need to find a place where I can store all these images and the source data where they are easily accessible. They will go online somewhere.
  • Secondly, I need to keep taking logs and keeping this archive up-to-date.
  • I also need to create a sensible means for generating SVG versions of the Green Blobs. This was an issue raised back at Akademy in Glasgow and still hasn't been addressed. I'm generally moving all of my visualisations to SVG these days.

In time I will add visualisations for things like email activity as well. If you have any ideas of aspects of the community you want visualised just let me know and I'll see what I can do. In particular, if you want me to run these jobs for your "bit" of KDE (e.g. Amarok, KOffice), just give me a shout and I'll see if I can make time. Better still, why not lend me a hand? Once I have hosting for the visualisations I will be putting all my scripts up with them. Finally.

Whilst the historical data has been visualised for interest, I hope that the new charts, as they are produced, will be helpful for all sorts of activities: from community management and coordination to marketing. Oh... and research, of course.

Categories: FLOSS Research

OSS, Akademy and ICSM 2009

Paul Adams: Green Eggs and Ham - Mon, 2009-06-01 15:15

I've just arrived in Sweden for the 5th International Conference on Open Source Systems - OSS2009. This year the conference is being held in Skövde, Sweden. This year's keynote speakers will be Stormy Peters and Brian Behlendorf. I'm particularly keen to meet with Stormy who I haven't seen since GUADEC in Birmingham; it would be good to talk before GCDS.

I like OSS. It is a friendly crowd who turn up and the conference always has a good mix of "the usual suspects" and new faces. One of those new faces for this year is Celeste Lyn Paul of KDE Usability fame. Her paper, "A survey of usability practices in Free/Libre/Open Source Software" is presented on Friday. My paper, "Reassessing Brooks' Law for the Free Software Community", will get its outing on Thursday.

In my paper I present a new approach to assessing the role of Brooks' Law and its relevance to Free Software development. This is really a "work in progress" paper. At least it was when I wrote it....

... and having subsequently finished this work I have recently received confirmation that my full paper on this topic has been accepted as a full paper to the International Conference on Software Maintenance. This gives me a great opportunity to start adding to my "I'm going to..." banners.

I'm putting together tentative plans to hold a workshop at Akademy on software quality issues. The idea is for this to be a joint workshop for both KDE and GNOME and a showcase for some of the more import results from SQO-OSS, FLOSSMETRICS and QUALOSS EC-funded research projects. If you are interested in this, please let me know. Unless there is enough up-front support, it will be hard to arrange this.

Edit: Co-Author Fail

One of my co-author's has correctly pointed out that I have used "I" where I should have written "us" and failed to give credit to my co-authors. I apologise unreservedly to Andrea Capiluppi and Cornelia Boldyreff. I am not worthy.

Categories: FLOSS Research
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